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  1. Whether a modestly elevated homocysteine level is causally associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease remains unestablished. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the associat...

    Authors: Shuai Yuan, Amy M. Mason, Paul Carter, Stephen Burgess and Susanna C. Larsson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Traditionally, studies investigating diet and health associations have focused on single nutrients. However, key nutrients co-exist in many common foods, and studies focusing solely on individual nutrients may...

    Authors: Min Gao, Susan A. Jebb, Paul Aveyard, Gina L. Ambrosini, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Jennifer Carter, Xinying Sun and Carmen Piernas

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:83

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Most studies on secular trends in body mass index (BMI) are cross-sectional and the few longitudinal studies have typically only investigated changes over time in mean BMI trajectories. We aimed to describe ho...

    Authors: T. Norris, M. Hamer, R. Hardy, L. Li, K. K. Ong, G. B. Ploubidis, R. Viner and W. Johnson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:96

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Large-scale rural-to-urban migration has changed the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in large Chinese cities. We estimated the contribution of TB importation, reactivation of latent infection, and local tran...

    Authors: Chongguang Yang, Jian Kang, Liping Lu, Xiaoqin Guo, Xin Shen, Ted Cohen and Nicolas A. Menzies

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:95

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The associations between England’s incentivised primary care-based diabetes prevention activities and hard clinical endpoints remain unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between attainment of primary ...

    Authors: Ailsa J. McKay, Laura H. Gunn, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Eszter Vamos, Manjula Nugawela, Azeem Majeed, German Molina and Sobha Sivaprasad

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:93

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Increasing evidence highlights healthy dietary patterns and links daily cooking oil intake with chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. However, food-based evidence supporting the...

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Pan Zhuang, Fei Wu, Wei He, Lei Mao, Wei Jia, Yiju Zhang, Xiaoqian Chen and Jingjing Jiao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:92

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Balancing the control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission with the resumption of travel is a global priority. Current recommendations include mitigation measures before, during, and after travel. Pre- and post-travel s...

    Authors: Michael A. Johansson, Hannah Wolford, Prabasaj Paul, Pamela S. Diaz, Tai-Ho Chen, Clive M. Brown, Martin S. Cetron and Francisco Alvarado-Ramy

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:94

    Content type: Research article

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  8. More than one third of Norwegian women and men between 20 and 40 years of age have elevated cholesterol concentration. Parental metabolic health around conception or during pregnancy may affect the offspring’s...

    Authors: Linn K. L. Øyri, Martin P. Bogsrud, Jacob J. Christensen, Stine M. Ulven, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Kjetil Retterstøl, Hilde K. Brekke, Trond M. Michelsen, Tore Henriksen, Jeanine E. Roeters van Lennep, Per Magnus, Marit B. Veierød and Kirsten B. Holven

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  9. COVID-19 spread may have a dramatic impact in countries with vulnerable economies and limited availability of, and access to, healthcare resources and infrastructures. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, a low pre...

    Authors: Filippo Trentini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Margherita Galli, Agnese Zardini, Fabio Manenti, Giovanni Putoto, Valentina Marziano, Worku Nigussa Gamshie, Ademe Tsegaye, Alessandro Greblo, Alessia Melegaro, Marco Ajelli, Stefano Merler and Piero Poletti

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:89

    Content type: Research article

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  10. An accurate and comprehensive assessment of harms is a fundamental part of an accurate weighing of benefits and harms of an intervention when making treatment decisions; however, harms are known to be underrep...

    Authors: Asger S. Paludan-Müller, Perrine Créquit and Isabelle Boutron

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:88

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The use of prenatal dexamethasone remains controversial. Our recent studies found that prenatal dexamethasone exposure can induce maternal intrahepatic cholestasis and have a lasting adverse influence on bile ...

    Authors: Wen Huang, Jin Zhou, Juanjuan Guo, Wen Hu, Guanghui Chen, Bin Li, Yajie Wen, Yimin Jiang, Kaili Fu, Huichang Bi, Yuanzhen Zhang and Hui Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:87

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Machine learning (ML) is increasingly used in research for subtype definition and risk prediction, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. No existing ML models are routinely used for cardiovascular disease m...

    Authors: Amitava Banerjee, Suliang Chen, Ghazaleh Fatemifar, Mohamad Zeina, R. Thomas Lumbers, Johanna Mielke, Simrat Gill, Dipak Kotecha, Daniel F. Freitag, Spiros Denaxas and Harry Hemingway

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:85

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT) has been brought under control recently with village-based active screening playing a major role in case reduction. In the approach to elimination, we investigate ho...

    Authors: Christopher N. Davis, Kat S. Rock, Marina Antillón, Erick Mwamba Miaka and Matt J. Keeling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:86

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone recepto...

    Authors: Michèle Matta, Inge Huybrechts, Carine Biessy, Corinne Casagrande, Sahar Yammine, Agnès Fournier, Karina Standahl Olsen, Marco Lukic, Inger Torhild Gram, Eva Ardanaz, Maria-José Sánchez, Laure Dossus, Renée T. Fortner, Bernard Srour, Franziska Jannasch, Matthias B. Schulze…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:81

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy put forward higher demands for accurate lung cancer classification, as well as benign versus malignant disease discrimination. Digital whole slide images (WSIs) witnessed the...

    Authors: Huan Yang, Lili Chen, Zhiqiang Cheng, Minglei Yang, Jianbo Wang, Chenghao Lin, Yuefeng Wang, Leilei Huang, Yangshan Chen, Sui Peng, Zunfu Ke and Weizhong Li

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:80

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Whether earlier onset of puberty is associated with higher cardiovascular risk in early adulthood is not well understood. Our objective was to examine the association between puberty timing and markers of card...

    Authors: Gillian M. Maher, Lisa Ryan, Fergus P. McCarthy, Alun Hughes, Chloe Park, Abigail Fraser, Laura D. Howe, Patricia M. Kearney and Linda M. O’Keeffe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:78

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Accurate and robust pathological image analysis for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is time-consuming and knowledge-intensive, but is essential for CRC patients’ treatment. The current heavy workload of path...

    Authors: K. S. Wang, G. Yu, C. Xu, X. H. Meng, J. Zhou, C. Zheng, Z. Deng, L. Shang, R. Liu, S. Su, X. Zhou, Q. Li, J. Li, J. Wang, K. Ma, J. Qi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:76

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Severe mental illness (SMI), comprising schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, is associated with higher myocardial infarction (MI) mortality but lower coronary revascularisation rates. Previous...

    Authors: Kelly Fleetwood, Sarah H. Wild, Daniel J. Smith, Stewart W. Mercer, Kirsty Licence, Cathie L. M. Sudlow and Caroline A. Jackson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:67

    Content type: Research article

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  19. There is a lack of national report of the labour neuraxial analgesia (NA) rates in China in recent years, especially after the national promotion policy. The adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes associated ...

    Authors: Yi Mu, Xiaodong Wang, Yanping Wang, Zheng Liu, Mingrong Li, Xiaohong Li, Qi Li, Jun Zhu, Juan Liang and Haidong Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:74

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk...

    Authors: Maxime M. Bos, Neil J. Goulding, Matthew A. Lee, Amy Hofman, Mariska Bot, René Pool, Lisanne S. Vijfhuizen, Xiang Zhang, Chihua Li, Rima Mustafa, Matt J. Neville, Ruifang Li-Gao, Stella Trompet, Marian Beekman, Nienke R. Biermasz, Dorret I. Boomsma…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:69

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Beyond intakes of total energy and individual nutrient, eating patterns may influence health, and thereby the risk of adverse outcomes. How different diet measures relate to frailty—a general measure of increa...

    Authors: Kulapong Jayanama, Olga Theou, Judith Godin, Leah Cahill, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hébert, Michael D. Wirth, Yong-Moon Park, Teresa T. Fung and Kenneth Rockwood

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:64

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Previous studies showed that recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can have a subsequent positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS...

    Authors: Xiaomin Wu, Zengmiao Wang, Zhenyu He, Yapin Li, Yating Wu, Huaiji Wang, Yonghong Liu, Fanghua Hao and Huaiyu Tian

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:77

    Content type: Research article

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  23. It is unclear whether insulin resistance (IR) contributes to excess mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes independent of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which is strongly associated with IR and is a major ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Penno, Anna Solini, Emanuela Orsi, Enzo Bonora, Cecilia Fondelli, Roberto Trevisan, Monica Vedovato, Franco Cavalot, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Olga Lamacchia, Antonio Nicolucci and Giuseppe Pugliese

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Reducing suicidal behaviour (SB) is a critical public health issue globally. The complex interplay of social determinants, service system factors, population demographics, and behavioural dynamics makes it ext...

    Authors: Jo-An Occhipinti, Adam Skinner, Frank Iorfino, Kenny Lawson, Julie Sturgess, Warren Burgess, Tracey Davenport, Danica Hudson and Ian Hickie

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:61

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are the major cause of death worldwide and are associated with a lower quality of life and high healthcare costs. To prevent a further rise in CMD and related healthcare costs, e...

    Authors: Daphne M. Stol, Eelco A. B. Over, Ilse F. Badenbroek, Monika Hollander, Mark M. J. Nielen, Roderik A. Kraaijenhagen, François G. Schellevis, Niek J. de Wit and G. Ardine de Wit

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:57

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation before and in early pregnancy prevents neural tube defects (NTD), but it is uncertain whether continuing FA after the first trimester has benefits on offspring health. ...

    Authors: Aoife Caffrey, Helene McNulty, Mark Rollins, Girijesh Prasad, Pramod Gaur, Joel B. Talcott, Caroline Witton, Tony Cassidy, Barry Marshall, James Dornan, Adrian J. Moore, Mary Ward, J. J. Strain, Anne M. Molloy, Marian McLaughlin, Diane J. Lees-Murdock…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:73

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Testing plays a critical role in treatment and prevention responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to nucleic acid tests (NATs), antigen-detection rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) can be more accessible, b...

    Authors: Saskia Ricks, Emily A. Kendall, David W. Dowdy, Jilian A. Sacks, Samuel G. Schumacher and Nimalan Arinaminpathy

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:75

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:82

  28. Although a potential inverse association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk has been reported, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This research aimed to elucidate the association between v...

    Authors: Evan Yi-Wen Yu, Anke Wesselius, Siamak Mehrkanoon, Mieke Goosens, Maree Brinkman, Piet van den Brandt, Eric J. Grant, Emily White, Elisabete Weiderpass, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Marc J. Gunter, Inge Huybrechts, Elio Riboli, Anne Tjonneland, Giovanna Masala, Graham G. Giles…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:56

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Currently, many patients suffering from dementia do not have a diagnosis when admitted to geriatric hospitals. This is the case despite an increased risk of complications affecting the length of stay and outco...

    Authors: Wolfgang Trapp, Susanne Röder, Andreas Heid, Pia Billman, Susanne Daiber and Göran Hajak

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:65

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Artificial intelligence (AI) in diagnostic radiology is undergoing rapid development. Its potential utility to improve diagnostic performance for cardiopulmonary events is widely recognized, but the accuracy a...

    Authors: Jordan Chamberlin, Madison R. Kocher, Jeffrey Waltz, Madalyn Snoddy, Natalie F. C. Stringer, Joseph Stephenson, Pooyan Sahbaee, Puneet Sharma, Saikiran Rapaka, U. Joseph Schoepf, Andres F. Abadia, Jonathan Sperl, Phillip Hoelzer, Megan Mercer, Nayana Somayaji, Gilberto Aquino…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:55

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The World Health Assembly has adopted a global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer. However, neither the optimal pathway nor the corresponding economic and health benefits have been evaluated. We take China ...

    Authors: Changfa Xia, Xiaoqian Xu, Xuelian Zhao, Shangying Hu, Youlin Qiao, Yong Zhang, Raymond Hutubessy, Partha Basu, Nathalie Broutet, Mark Jit and Fanghui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:62

    Content type: Research article

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  32. There is limited prospective evidence on the association between meat consumption and many common, non-cancerous health outcomes. We examined associations of meat intake with risk of 25 common conditions (othe...

    Authors: Keren Papier, Georgina K. Fensom, Anika Knuppel, Paul N. Appleby, Tammy Y. N. Tong, Julie A. Schmidt, Ruth C. Travis, Timothy J. Key and Aurora Perez-Cornago

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:53

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Despite recent advances through the development pipeline, how novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines might affect rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) is unknown. We investigated the...

    Authors: Chathika K Weerasuriya, Rebecca C Harris, C Finn McQuaid, Fiammetta Bozzani, Yunzhou Ruan, Renzhong Li, Tao Li, Kirankumar Rade, Raghuram Rao, Ann M Ginsberg, Gabriela B Gomez and Richard G White

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:60

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Long noncoding (lnc)RNAs and glycolysis are both recognized as key regulators of cancers. Some lncRNAs are also reportedly involved in regulating glycolysis metabolism. However, glycolysis-associated lncRNA si...

    Authors: Kuo-Hao Ho, Tzu-Wen Huang, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yi-Ting Lee, Ann-Jeng Liu, Peng-Hsu Chen and Ku-Chung Chen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:59

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Males experience higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than females, but the circulating traits underpinning this difference are poorly understood. We examined sex differences in systemic metabolites me...

    Authors: Joshua A. Bell, Diana L. Santos Ferreira, Abigail Fraser, Ana Luiza G. Soares, Laura D. Howe, Deborah A. Lawlor, David Carslake, George Davey Smith and Linda M. O’Keeffe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:58

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Following the initial identification of the 2019 coronavirus disease (covid-19), the subsequent months saw substantial increases in published biomedical research. Concerns have been raised in both scientific a...

    Authors: Terence J. Quinn, Jennifer K. Burton, Ben Carter, Nicola Cooper, Kerry Dwan, Ryan Field, Suzanne C. Freeman, Claudia Geue, Ping-Hsuan Hsieh, Kris McGill, Clareece R. Nevill, Dikshyanta Rana, Alex Sutton, Martin Taylor Rowan and Yiqiao Xin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:46

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation of severe COVID-19 to prior drug prescribing.

    Authors: Paul M. McKeigue, Sharon Kennedy, Amanda Weir, Jen Bishop, Stuart J. McGurnaghan, David McAllister, Chris Robertson, Rachael Wood, Nazir Lone, Janet Murray, Thomas M. Caparrotta, Alison Smith-Palmer, David Goldberg, Jim McMenamin, Bruce Guthrie, Sharon Hutchinson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:51

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Mounting evidence suggests that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes, but its contribution to the global epidemic of childhood obesity has not as yet been definitively characterized. We invest...

    Authors: Ling-Wei Chen, Adrien M. Aubert, Nitin Shivappa, Jonathan Y. Bernard, Sara M. Mensink-Bout, Aisling A. Geraghty, John Mehegan, Matthew Suderman, Kinga Polanska, Wojciech Hanke, Agnieszka Jankowska, Caroline L. Relton, Sarah R. Crozier, Nicholas C. Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Mark Hanson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:33

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:68

  39. England’s COVID-19 response transitioned from a national lockdown to localised interventions. In response to rising cases, these were supplemented by national restrictions on contacts (the Rule of Six), then 1...

    Authors: Christopher I. Jarvis, Amy Gimma, Kevin van Zandvoort, Kerry L. M. Wong and W. John Edmunds

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The micronutrient iodine is essential for a healthy intrauterine environment and is required for optimal fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Evidence linking urinary iodine concentrations, which mainly reflects...

    Authors: Kristof Y. Neven, Bianca Cox, Charlotte Cosemans, Wilfried Gyselaers, Joris Penders, Michelle Plusquin, Harry A. Roels, Karen Vrijens, Ann Ruttens and Tim S. Nawrot

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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