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Table 1 Summary of established and potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of multiple sclerosis.

From: Personalized medicine in multiple sclerosis: hope or reality?

Established biomarkers Diagnosis Prognosis Treatment response/side effects
Cerebral spinal fluid-specific oligoclonal bands + (+) -
Intrathecal immunoglobulin production + (+) -
Intrathecal anti-viral immunoglobulin production + - -
Magnetic resonance imaging + (+) (+)
Neutralizing antibodies against beta-interferon - - (+)
Neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab - - +
Antibodies against JC virus - - +
Aquaporin 4 antibodies + (+) (+)
Potential biomarkers    
CD56 bright natural killer cells - - (+)
Cytokines/chemokines - - (+)
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (+) - -
Intrathecal/oligoclonal immunoglobulin M production - (+) -
Transcriptomics - - (+)
Genetics (+) (+) (+)
  1. + valid biomarker that is used in clinical practice; (+) there is experimental and clinical evidence for this biomarker, but the need for more clinical data; - there is no clear evidence.