Effect of perinatal nicotine exposure on male and female offspring pulmonary function. Compared to the control group, with nicotine administration there were significant increases in resistance and decreases in compliance of the lung following Mch challenge in F1 and F2 male (A) and female (B) rats even though the F2 pups were not exposed to any nicotine during gestation. Values are means ± SE. n = 5 to 6 for each group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control. Mch, methacholine.