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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized clinical trials.a

From: Effects of lifestyle modification on metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Country, trial n Definition of MetS Age years Gender Type of intervention Duration, years Rate, % = number free from MetS/number subjects) Mean difference (SE)
        Intervention Control FBG Waist SBP DBP TG HDL
UK, CARMEN trial [23] 46 3+ risk factors 46 M/F LF-SC 0.5 - - - 0.0 (2.02) -13.0 (5.56) -0.6 (4.29) 50.7 (19.95) 0.5 (2.42)
UK, CARMEN trial [23] 46 ≥3 MetS risk factors 46 M/F LF-CC 0.5 - - - -4.0 (2.94) -15.0 (6.33) -4.2 (4.29) 0.0 (16.62) -1.5 (2.42)
USA [22] 53 Syndrome X >29 M/F EX+WL 0.5 - - -8.0 (4.84) - -6.0 (4.17) -9.0 (2.08) -17.0 (64.11) 4.0 (4.26)
Italy [21]b 164 ATP III 44 M/F Med diet 2 20% = 18/90 67% = 60/90 -6.0 (0.35) -2.0 (0.05) -3.0 (0.24) --2.0 (0.15) -19.0 (0.90) 3.0 (0.24)
Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study [20]b 116 ATP III 41 M/F WR 0.5 0% = 0/40 18% = 7/38 -6.0 (5.18) 0.0 (4.31) -3.0 (5.58) -1.0 (3.01) -15.0 (11.34) -6.0 (2.22)
Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study [20]b 116 ATP III 41 M/F DASH 0.5 0% = 0/40 34% = 13/38 3.0 (5.83) -5.0 (4.48) -11.0 (3.80) -6.0 (2.96) -17.0 (11.34) 1.0 (2.16)
Part of DPPRG Study [19] 1711 ATP III 25-82 M/F M/F L 3 18% = 107/592 38% = 209/549 - - - - - -
Italy [18]b 335 ATP III or hs-CRP+2 56 M/F L 1 34% = 41/120c 65% = 77/119c -5.9 (1.28) -4.6 (0.64) -6.8 (1.92) -2.3 (1.03) -16.0 (8.95) 3.6 (5.84)
Part of PREDIMED study [17] 499 Med diet 67 M/F Med diet+nuts 3 16% = 41/250 25% = 63/249 - - - - - -
Part of PREDIMED study [17] 502 Med diet 67 M/F Med diet+V00 3 16% = 41/250 21% = 53/252 - - - - - -
Part of Finnish DPS study [16] 502 ATPIII high risk 55 M/F L 1 15% = 26/177 27% = 49/184 - - - - - -
  1. ATP III = The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III; CARMEN = Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets; DASH = The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; DPPRG = Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group; DPS = Diabetes Prevention Study; EX+WL = dietary and behavior modification for weight loss plus exercise; FBG = fasting blood glucose; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; hs-CRP+2 = 2 components of metabolic syndrome plus high-sensitivity CRP serum values ≥3 mg/L; L = lifestyle recommendation; LF-CC = low-fat; high-complex-carbohydrate diet; LF-SC = low-fat; high-simple-carbohydrate diet; Med = Mediterranean; MetS = metabolic syndrome; PREDIMED = Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea; SBP = systolic blood pressure; TG = triglycerides; VOO = virgin olive oil; WR = weight-reducing diet; WR+EX = weight-reducing diet plus exercise.
  2. aStudies [2026] were used for the meta-analysis of the metabolic syndrome components.
  3. bSD was calculated using 95% confidence interval for references [18, 20, 21].
  4. cCalculated from the proportion