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Table 1 Contrasting quantitative microbial risk-assessment models and infectious disease-transmission models.

From: Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

Modeling aspects Quantitative microbial risk-assessment model Dynamic transmission model
Non-linear dynamics Usually no Usually yes
Environmental sources Yes Usually no
Inclusion of uncertainty/stochasticity Yes Case-by-case basis (deterministic dynamical systems, stochastic, hybrid models)
Time scale Days Weeks to months
Population size Thousands (music festival) to millions (Hajj pilgrimage) Hundred thousands to millions
Population density High Low to high
Model structure Spatial-temporal network (Summer Olympics); confined space (Army barracks) Age-structured, random-mixing populations; patch models; household-level models; large-scale individual-level models
Stochastic disease extinction Yes Unlikely
Endemicity No Yes
Contribution of super-spreading events High Low to moderate