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Table 2 Putative risk and protective factors

From: A public health approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization

Factor Description
Risk factors Young people facing transitions: education, place, family, religion and so on
  Cognitive and social openings to new influences
  Social isolation and exclusion
  Grievances about discrimination that may be personal, related to unfair treatment at work, access to health care or about other inequalities in society
  Migrant status and experiences before and after immigration
  International conflict that is considered unjust against a group with which individual identifies on religious, national or cultural grounds
  Perceived threat to family and cultural group
  Marginalized and traditional cultural identities
  Discrimination thought to explain group inequalities in health and social status and access to wealth
  Not able to negotiate needs and protest through non-violent and democratic means
  Contact with influential or charismatic leaders who justify terrorism (for example, in prisons, or in schools or universities)
Protective factors Social support
  Social cohesion
  Social capital and trust in institutions
  Feeling of safety and security in neighborhood
  Integrated cultural identity
  Employment success
  Access to democratic means for negotiating needs and opinions
  Access to critical religious leadership that can moderate and inform on legitimate religious perspectives