Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Studies concerning bone mass, bone metabolism and cycling participation

From: Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

Study Participants Exercise Years of cycling training Study design Data source Resultsa Strength of evidence
  Number Sex Age       
Barry et al. (2007) [47] CYC (20) M 22 to 45 Competitive level   2-h exercise bout at 60% to 75% VT Hormones, calcium Parathyroid was increased after 2 h of cycling. B: observational
Barry et al. (2008) [43] CYC (14) M 27 to 44 >450 h/year 4.9 ± 2.4 Two groups: HIGH and LOW calcium supplementation over 1-year season DXA Both groups decreased BMD over 1 year in total hip and subregions, without differences for HIGH or LOW calcium. A: RCT
Barry et al. (2011) [39] CYC and TRI (20) M 37 ± 7.6 - 6.0 ± 6.5 Different calcium supplementation groups over three 35-km trials DXA, hormones 30% of participants had LS BMD T-score over -1.0. Calcium supplementation attenuates disruption of parathyroid hormone. A: RCT
Beshgetoor et al. (2000) [41] CYC (12); RUN (9); CON (9) F 49.6 ± 7.9 - - 18 months follow-up DXA, calcium intake Femur BMD maintained in CYC and RUN, decline CON. LS BMD maintained RUN, decline CYC and CON. No relationship between BMD and calcium intake. B: case-control
Brown et al. (2000) [49] CYC (32) M/F 16 to 62 Competitive cycling >2 Two groups: HIGH FAT and HIGH CARBOHYDRATE intake; 12-week intervention DXA No differences in fat or lean accumulation between groups. BMD increased in HIGH FAT group. A: RCT
Campion et al. (2010) [34] CYC (30) CON (30) M 29 ± 3.4 28 ± 4.5 22 to 25 h/week <1 h/week - Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower WB, LS, pelvis, femoral neck, upper and lower limbs than CON B: case-control
Duncan et al. (2002) [21] CYC (15) RUN (15) SWI (15) TRI (15) CON (15) F 16 to 17 ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week <2 h/week 3.1 ± 1.8 Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower legs BMD than RUN. No differences with CON. B: case-control
Duncan et al. (2002) [45] CYC (10) RUN (10) SWI (10) TRI (10) CON (10) F 16 to 17 ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week ≥8 h/week <2 h/week 3.1 ± 1.8 Cross-sectional MRI, DXA CYC lower cortical CSA, moment of inertia and mid-femur BMD than RUN. No differences with CON. B: case-control
Fiore et al. (1996) [36] CYC (14); CAN (18); CON (28) M - - - Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower WB, LS and pelvic BMD than CAN. No differences with CON. B: case-control
Guillaume et al. (2012) [38] CYC (29) M 26.5 ± 5.3 25,000 to 30,000 km/year 4.5 ± 4 Descriptive DXA, bone markers CYC lower LS BMD Z-scores. Bone turnover markers were in a normal range. B: case series
Heinonen et al. (1993) [19] CYC (22); ORI (30); SKI (28); CYC (29); WL (18); CON (25) F 18 to 32 - - Cross-sectional DXA, calcium intake CYC lower BMD at all sites than WL. No differences with CON. No relationship between BMD and calcium intake. B: case-control
Hinrichs et al. (2010) [35] CYC (16) RUN (37) TRI (22) TEAM (62) POW (45) BAL (13) STU (126) CON (61) M/F 17 to 30 15 h/week 12.5 h/week 15 h/week 10 h/week 10 h/week 27 h/week 7.5 h/week - >4 Cross-sectional DXA CYC low values of LS and femur BMD than the other groups B: case-control
Maïmoun et al. (2003) [25] CYC (11) SWI (13) TRI (14) CON (10) M 18 to 39 10.6 h/week 10.7 h/week 15.2 h/week <2 h/week - Cross-sectional DXA, hormones CYC and TRI induce androgen deficiency compared to CON, without alteration in BMD B: case-control
Maïmoun et al. (2004) [24] CYC (11) SWI (13) TRI (14) CON (10) M 18 to 39 10.6 h/week 10.7 h/week 15.2 h/week <2 h/week 9.3 ± 6.8 Cross-sectional DXA, bone markers, calcium intake CYC lower BAP than all groups. No differences in BMD. No relationship between BMD and calcium intake. B: case-control
Medelli et al. (2009) [29] CYC (73) CON (30) M 25.8 ± 4.3 28.3 ± 4.5 ≥3 to 6 h/day <1 h/week - Cross-sectional DXA, calcium intake CYC had higher calcium intake and lower LS and femoral neck BMD than CON. B: case-control
Medelli et al. (2009) [4] CYC (23) M 28.5 ± 3.9 ≥3 to 6 h/day - Descriptive DXA Two-thirds of participants had lower values of LS BMD B: case series
Morel et al. (2001) [27] CYC (47); other sports (657) M 30 7 h/week - Cross-sectional. Sportsmen classed as amateur when 11 to 18 years old. DXA No differences between different sports B: case-control, retrospective
Nevill et al. (2004) [23] CYC (16) CON (15) Others (90) M 28.6 ± 6 24.9 ± 5.4 - >4 h/week - - >3 Cross-sectional DXA CYC had no differences in BMD compared to CON, as other sports do B: case-control
Nichols et al. (2003) [32] Young CYC (16) Master CYC (27) CON (24) M 31.7 ± 3.5 51.2 ± 5.3 51.2 ± 2 ≥10 h/week ≥10 h/week <2 days/week 10.9 ± 3.2 20.2 ± 8.4 - Cross-sectional DXA Master CYC lower WB BMD than young CYC. Master CYC lower LS and hip BMD than young CYC and CON. B: case-control
Nichols et al. (2010) [42] CYC (19) CON (18) M 50.7 ± 4 50.7 ± 4.1 11.1 h/week 4.5 h/week 27.5 ± 6.8 Longitudinal, 7-year follow-up DXA Higher percentage of CYC osteopenic/osteoporotic than CON. Greater increment in this percentage in CYC. B: case-control
Nikander et al. (2005) [26] CYC (29) SWI (27) VOL (21) HUR (24) SQU (20) SOC (19) SKA (15) AER (27) WL (19) ORI (29) CRO (25) CON (30) F 20 to 30 10.2 ± 6.8 13.5 ± 4.5 9.9 ± 2.5 9.1 ± 2.4 6.0 ± 3.1 8.6 ± 5.5 6.4 ± 3.6 6.6 ± 3.7 8.3 ± 2.6 8.6 ± 1.4 10.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 2.0 5.9 ± 3.1 10.6 ± 4.3 8.6 ± 3.3 10.4 ± 3.0 6.4 ± 4.7 10.7 ± 3.8 9.4 ± 7.2 8.3 ± 2.7 3.3 ± 1.3 13.0 ± 3.1 10.7 ± 3.5 - Cross-sectional DXA, calcium intake CYC and SWI no differences with CON in BMD and CSA, as the rest of the sports. No differences in calcium intake. B: case-control
Olmedillas et al. (2011) [40] CYC (21) CON (23) M 15 to 21 10 h/week 4 h/week 2 to 7 Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower BMC at WB, pelvis, FN and legs, and lower BMD at pelvis, hip and legs. Greater differences in CYC over 17 years compared to CON. B: case-control
Penteado et al. (2001) [22] CYC (31) CON (28) M 24 26 21 h/week 0 5.2 ± 3.3 Cross-sectional DXA No differences with CON. B: case-control
Rector et al. (2008) [37] CYC (27) RUN (16) M 20 to 39 ≥6 h/week ≥6 h/week >2 Cross-sectional DXA, bone markers CYC lower WB and LS BMD, and 7 times more likely to have osteopenia than RUN. No differences in bone turnover markers. B: case-control
Rico et al. (1993) [20] CYC (22) CON (27) M 16 ≥10 h/week - >2 Cross-sectional DXA, calcium intake CYC lower legs BMC than CON, without adjustment. No differences when adjusting by weight. No relationship between BMD and calcium intake. B: case-control
Rico et al. (1993) [50] CYC (22) CON (27) M 16 ≥10 h/week - >2 Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower WB BMC and BMD than CON B: case-control
Sabo et al. (1996) [30] CYC (6) WL (28) BOX (6) CON (21) M 21 to 24 3,000 to 10,000 km in pre-competition - Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower LS BMD than CON B: case-control
Stewart et al. (2000) [31] CYC (14) RUN (12) RUN+CYC (13) CON (23) M 18 to 43 8.7 h/week 10.7 h/week 9.4 h/week 0 h/week >2 Cross-sectional DXA CYC lower LS BMD than CON. RUN higher WB BMD than CON. RUN+CYC higher WB BMD than CON. B: case-control
Smathers et al. (2009) [33] CYC (32) CON (30) M 20 to 45 ≥1 year 3 days/week 9.4 ± 1.1 Cross-sectional DXA, calcium intake, hormones CYC higher calcium intake. No differences for testosterone. CYC lower LS BMD than CON. B: case-control
Warner et al. (2002) [28] Cross-country CYC (16) Road CYC (14) CON (15) M 20 to 40 ≥10 h/week ≥10 h/week <2 h/week 5.9 ± 2.8 9.9 ± 4.4 - Cross-sectional DXA, hormones Cross-country CYC higher BMD at all sites that road CYC and CON. No differences in testosterone levels. B: case-control
Wilks et al. (2009) [46] Sprint CYC (52) Distance CYC (19) CON (32) M/F 30 to 82 50 ± 13 <2 h/week 26 ± 15 29 ± 16 Start age Cross-sectional pQCT Sprint CYC higher index of strength in tibia and radius than CON. Distance CYC higher tibial BMC than CON. B: case-control
  1. aUnless stated, the results indicate significant differences between two or more groups.
  2. AER = step aerobicists; BAP = bone alkaline phosphatase; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; BOX = boxers; CAN = canoeists; CIC = cyclists; CON = controls; CRO = cross-country skiers; CTX = C-terminal collagen crosslinks; DXA = dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; HUR = hurdlers; LS = lumbar spine; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; OC = osteocalcin; ORI = orienteers; pQCT = peripheral quantitative computed tomography; RCT = randomized control trial; RUN = runners; SKA = speed skaters; SKI = skiers; SQU = squash players; SWI = swimmers; TRI = triathletes; VOL = volleyball players; WB = whole body; WL = weightlifters.