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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in each of the intervention groups

From: Rest versus exercise as treatment for patients with low back pain and Modic changes. a randomized controlled clinical trial

Characteristic Rest Exercise All
Number enrolled 49 51 100
Age [mean, SD] 47 ± 9.8 45 ± 8.9 46 ± 9.3
Sex [female %] 33 (67) 35 (69) 68 (68)
BMI [median, IQR] 25 (22-27) 25 (24-29) 25 (23-28)
BMI distribution [N (%)]    
Underweight < 18.5 0 0 0
Normal range 18.5 to 24.9 25 (51) 24 (47) 49 (49)
Overweight 25 to 30 16 (33) 17 (33) 33 (33)
Obese > 30 8 (16) 10 (20) 18 (18)
Smoking (Yes (%)) 23 (47) 18 (35) 41 (41)
Heavy smoking (> 20 cigarettes/day) (N (%)) 3 (6) 3 (6) 6 (6)
Employed (Yes (%)) 34 (69) 39 (76) 73 (73)
Unemployed (Yes (%)) 7 (15) 6 (12) 13 (13)
Disability pension (Yes (%)) 4 (9) 2 (4) 6 (6)
Applied disability pension (Yes (%)) 3 (6) 3 (6) 6 (6)
Type of occupation (N (%))    
Sitting 11 (22) 6 (12) 17 (17)
Mostly walking 17 (35) 23 (45) 40 (40)
Walking and some lifting 11 (22) 12 (24) 23 (23)
Hard physical work 10 (20) 10 (20) 20 (20)
Education (Number (%))    
Basic school 8 to 10 grade 17 (35) 14 (28) 31 (31)
High school 2 (4) 2 (4) 4 (4)
Vocational education 20 (41) 21 (41) 41 (41)
Academic, maximum 4 years 10 (20) 12 (25) 22 (22)
Academic, > 4 years 0 (0) 2 (4) 2 (2)
Sick leave (Yes (%)) 18 (37) 20 (39) 38 (38)
Sick leave last year Number (%))    
0 days 8 (16) 9 (18) 17 (17)
1 to 30 days 17 (35) 19 (37) 36 (36)
31 to 365 days 24 (48) 23 (45) 47 (47)
Complaint or compensation case (Yes (%)) 5 (10) 3 (6) 8 (8)
Pre-trial exercise therapy (Number (%)) 30 (61) 23 (45) 53 (53)
MCs Type I (%) 38 (78) 40 (78) 78 (78)
MCs Type II (%) 30 (61) 31 (61) 61 (61)
MCs Type III (%) 9 (18) 4 (8) 13 (13)
Pain NRS (0 to 10) (mean ± SD) 5.6 ± 1.5 5.1 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 1.9
Disability RMQ-23 (mean ± SD) 12.0 ± 4.0 13.3 ± 4.8 12.6 ± 4.4
General health EQindex (mean ± SD) 0.68 ± 0.12 0.62 ± 0.18 0.65 ± 0.15
General health EQVAS (mean ± SD) 54 ± 18 53 ± 20 53 ± 19
Depression BDI 10.7 ± 6.1 9.6 ± 5.9 10.2 ± 6.0
  1. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BMI, body mass index; EQ-5D, EuroQol; IQR, interquartile range; NRS, numeric rating scale; RMQ, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; SD, standard deviation.