Improvement of β-cell function by Stem Cell Educator therapy. (A) Fasting C-peptide levels of T1D participants over 24 weeks. Group A and Group B participants (n = 6 per group) received one Stem Cell Educator treatment. Control group participants (n = 3) received sham therapy (no CB-SCs in the Stem Cell Educator). (B) 12-week follow-up C-peptide levels after OGTT at 2 hours in Group A T1D subjects with some residual β cells. (C) Comparison of C-peptide levels at glucose challenge after 40-week follow-up in Group B T1D subjects. The dashed red line indicates the lower limit for normal C-peptide levels in Chinese populations. The dashed purple line indicates the minimum detectable level (sensitivity) of C-peptide by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CB-SCs, cord blood stem cells; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; T1D, type 1 diabetes.