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Table 2 Cognitive Outcomes at Baseline

From: The effects of multi-domain versus single-domain cognitive training in non-demented older people: a randomized controlled trial

  A
(Mean ± SD)
B
(Mean ± SD)
C
(Mean ± SD)
F
RBANS total score 86.05 ± 14.11 85.95 ± 14.17 83.34 ± 14.54 0.78
   Immediate memory 80.81 ± 15.60 79.84 ± 15.51 77.15 ± 15.21 1.00
   Visuospatial/Constructional 97.75 ± 16.37 93.87 ± 16.24 94.44 ± 16.50 1.00
   Language 94.05 ± 11.64 92.76 ± 9.66 94.32 ± 8.70 0.45
   Attention 84.90 ± 17.37 87.54 ± 16.86 83.38 ± 16.37 1.03
   Delayed Memory 89.80 ± 17.57 93.00 ± 17.42 86.76 ± 17.36 2.14
The Visual Reasoning Test 4.63 ± 1.86 4.92 ± 1.90 4.70 ± 2.21 0.35
The CWST     
   Color interfere 20.98 ± 14.99 17.26 ± 9.50 20.97 ± 12.71 1.84
   Word interfere 44.76 ± 25.53 39.95 ± 17.42 41.15 ± 19.57 0.85
   Number of naming errors 10.67 ± 11.02 8.39 ± 7.58 11.68 ± 12.59 1.61
The TMT     
   Trails A complete time 113.25 ± 50.30 107.55 ± 55.93 114.52 ± 51.89 0.32
   Trails A error number 0.47 ± 0.90 0.48 ± 1.08 0.51 ± 1.01 0.02
   Trails A reminding time 0.02 ± 0.13 0.03 ± 0.25 0.06 ± 0.23 0.56
   Trails A approximate error number 0.02 ± 0.13 0.02 ± 0.13 0.11 ± 0.32 4.31*
   Trails B complete time 205.64 ± 114.43 201.15 ± 101.97 222.96 ± 124.15 0.68
   Trails B error number 0.64 ± 1.87 0.69 ± 1.98 0.77 ± 1.94 0.07
   Trails B reminding time 0.36 ± 1.40 0.23 ± 1.08 0.41 ± 0.98 0.40
   Trails B approximate error number 0.19 ± 0.44 0.11 ± 0.45 0.09 ± 0.28 1.12
MMSE 27.16 ± 2.13 27.33 ± 2.14 26.86 ± 2.22 0.79
  1. * P < 0.05; A: Multi-domain Training Group; B: Single-domain Training Group; C: Control Group. CWST, Color Word Stroop test; MMSE, Mini-mental State Examination; RBANS, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; TMT, Trail Making test.