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Table 1 Treatment options for viral hemorrhagic fevers

From: Viral hemorrhagic fevers: advancing the level of treatment

Virus Family Incubation Virulence Communicability Isolation Treatment option(s)
Ebola Filoviridae 2 to 21 days High Yes Yes Post-exposure vaccination (rVSV); rNAPc2; siRNA
Marburg Filoviridae 2 to 21 days High Yes Yes Post-exposure vaccination (rVSV)
Lassa Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Moderate Yes Yes Ribavirin
Lujo Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days High Yes Yes Ribavirin
Junin Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Moderate Yes Yes Passive immune therapy
Machupo Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Moderate Yes Yes Passive immune therapy
Sabia Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Moderate Unknown Yes  
Guanarito Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Moderate Unknown Yes  
Chapare Arenaviridae 6 to 21 days Unknown Unknown Yes  
Nipah Paramyxoviridae 4 to 18 days High Potentiala Yes Passive immune therapy
Hendra Paramyxoviridae 4 to 18 days High Unknown Yes Passive immune therapy
CCHF Bunyaviridae 3 to 7 days Moderate Yes Yes Ribavirin
Rift Valley fever Bunyaviridae 2 to 14 days Low to moderate No No Ribavirin
Hantan, Seoul, and so on Bunyaviridae Days to months Low to moderate No No Ribavirinn, hemodialysis
Sin Nombre, Andes, and so on Bunyaviridae Days to months Moderate Nob Nob ECMO
Yellow fever Flaviviridae 3 to 6 days Moderate No No  
Dengue Flaviviridae 3 to 14 days Low No No  
RSSE Flaviviridae 7 to 14 days Moderate No No  
Omsk/KFD/AHF Flaviviridae 3 to 8 days Moderate Unknown Yes  
  1. aHuman-to-human transmission has been reported from outbreaks in Bangladesh.
  2. bAndes virus has been reported to be transmissible from human to human; isolation may be indicated.
  3. AHFV = Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever; CCHF = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; KFD = Kyasanur Forest disease; RSSE = Russian spring-summer encephalitis; rVSV = recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus; siRNA = small interfering RNA molecule.