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Table 9 Multivariable Cox regression analysis of relapse-free survival in patients with primary breast cancer showing the impact of adding the marker (PMN-E) to a base model of recognized prognostic variables [59].

From: Reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK): explanation and elaboration

Factor HR (95% CI) P
Base model   
   Age and menopausal status combined   0.005
   Age premenopausala 0.68 (0.55 to 0.85)  
   Age postmenopausala 0.96 (0.84 to 1.09)  
   Post- versus premenopausal 1.83 (1.27 to 2.46)  
   Tumor size   <0.001
2 cm to 5 cm versus ≤2 cm 1.69 (1.36 to 2.10)  
>5 cm versus ≤2 cm 2.31 (1.73 to 3.10)  
   Nodal status   <0.001
N1-3 versus N0 1.66 (1.30 to 2.11)  
N>3 versus N0 2.75 (2.18 to 3.47)  
   ER (positive versus negative)b 0.87 (0.68 to 1.11) 0.25
   PgR (positive versus negative)b 0.76 (0.61 to 0.95) 0.02
Additions to base model   
   +PMN-E (high versus low)c 1.45 (1.10 to 1.89) 0.01
   +PMN-E (continuous)d 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) 0.13
  1. aAge in decades for pre- and postmenopausal patients; bPositive, ≥10 fmol/mg protein; negative <10 ng/mg protein; cHigh, >36.4 ng/mg protein; low, ≤36.4 ng/mg protein; dLog-transformed variable. CI: confidence interval; ER: estrogen receptor; PgR: progesterone receptor.