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Table 4 Summary of details regarding each included study.

From: The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

Study Design Participants Neuromuscular warm-up program Control Group Outcome
Mandelbaum et al. [26] CCT 1,041 female soccer players, aged 14 to 18 years Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Programme: three basic warm-up exercises, five stretching exercises for the trunk and lower extremities, three strengthening exercises, five plyometric exercises and three soccer-specific agility drills. Performed before matches and training, 20 minutes, for two years Normal warm-up strategy ACL injuries
Pfeiffer et al. [27] CCT 1,439 female soccer, basketball and volleyball players, aged 14 to 18 years Knee Ligament Injury Prevention Programme: four progressive phases of jumping and landing forwards and backwards, two- and one-footed drills, plyometric and agility training. Performed either before or after training sessions twice a week, 20 minutes, for two consecutive seasons Normal warm-up strategy ACL injuries
Gilchrist et al. [28] RCT 1,435 female football players, average age 19.9 years Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program: Three basic warm-up exercises, five stretching exercises for the trunk and lower extremities, three strengthening exercises, five plyometric exercises and three soccer-specific agility drills. Before training, 20 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks Normal warm-up strategy Undefined knee and ACL injuries
Kiani et al. [29] CCT 1,506 female football players, aged 13 to 19 years The 'HarmoKnee' program: warm-up, muscle activation, balance, strength, core stability exercises. Performed twice a week preseason (three months), once a week during in-season training session (six months), total duration 20 to 25 minutes Normal warm-up strategy All new knee injuries
LaBella et al. [30] RCT 1,558 female football and basketball players, average age 16 years Knee Injury Prevention Program: combining progressive strengthening, plyometric, balance and agility exercises. In season for one year. Total duration 20 minutes before team practices, an abbreviated version with dynamic motion exercises only before games Normal warm-up strategy Gradual-onset lower extremity injuries, acute-onset non-contact lower extremity injuries, non-contact knee, ACL and ankle sprains
Soligard et al. [31] RCT 1,982 female football players, aged 13 to 17 years The '11+': 10 exercises including slow running, active stretching, controlled contact, exercises for strength, balance, jumping and soccer-specific agility drills. Before training, 20 minutes, only running exercises before match, for eight months Normal warm-up strategy Overall and overuse lower limb injuries, groin, posterior and anterior thigh injuries, undefined knee, MTSS and undefined ankle injuries
Steffen et al. [32] RCT 2,020 female football players, aged 13 to 17 years The '11': 10 exercises for core stability, balance, dynamic stabilization and eccentric hamstring strength. Two months preseason, six months in-season before training, 20 minutes for 15 consecutive training sessions then once a week thereafter Normal warm-up strategy Overall lower limb injuries, groin and thigh injuries, undefined knee and ACL injuries, and undefined ankle injuries
Coppack et al. [33] RCT 1,502 male and female army recruits, aged 17 to 25 years Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme: warm-up consisted of eight exercises closed chain strengthening exercises, 10 to 14 repetitions each; warm-down involved four stretching exercises, three repetitions. Performed at each training session (mean = seven per week), 15 minutes, for 14 weeks Normal warm-up strategy (running, stretching, strengthening) AKP
Brushøj et al. [34] RCT 1,020 female and male army recruits aged 19 to 26 years Prevention Training Programme: Five exercises for strengthening, balance, stretching performed in three sets of five to 25 repetitions. Before military training, 15 minutes, three times a week for 12 weeks Strategy for the upper body Overall and overuse lower limb injuries, AKP, patella tendinopathy, ITBFS, MTSS, ankle sprain and Achilles injuries.
  1. ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; AKP, anterior knee pain; CCT, controlled clinical trial; ITBFS, iliotibial band friction syndrome; MTSS, medial tibial stress syndrome; RCT, randomized controlled trial.