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Table 1 Tumor marker characteristics.

From: Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review

Tumor marker Clinical use in gynecological oncology Production site in normal adult Production site during pregnancy Molecular weight
Carbohydrate antigen 15-3 Breast cancer Glandular epithelia Uncertain
(maternal mammary gland epithelium? placenta?)
290 kDa
Squamous cell carcinoma antigen Cervical squamous cell cancer Squamous epithelia (both benign and malignant) Uncertain
42 kDa
Carbohydrate antigen 125 Non-mucinous ovarian cancer Structures derived from the celomic epithelium (such as endocervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube) and in tissues developed from mesothelial cells (such as pleura, pericardium and peritoneum) Decidua and amnion cells 200 to 250 kDa
Inhibin B Granulosa cell tumors
(some (mucinous) epithelial ovarian tumors)
Granulosa and theca cells (member of the transforming growth factor-β family) Granulosa and theca cells Monomer 15 kDa, homodimer 25 kDa
Anti-Müllerian hormone Granulosa cell tumors Granulosa cells of ovarian follicles (member of the transforming growth factor-β family) Sertoli cells of male fetus, for regression of Müllerian ducts 140 kDa
Lactate dehydrogenase Germ cell tumors Cell cytoplasm Cell cytoplasm 140 kDa