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Table 3 Overview of selected studies on carbohydrate antigen 15-3 levels during normal pregnancy.

From: Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review

  Author/year of publication Study design Laboratory technique Number of patients Cut-off value Trimester 1 Trimester 2 Trimester 3 Conclusion
1 Touitou 1989 [6] cross-sectional IRMA, CIS-Bio International, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France T1 n = 32; T2 n = 32; T3 n = 36 <25 11.1 ± 4.2
mean ± SD
14.2 ± 5.1 17.0 ± 5.0 None above cut-off value
2 Schlageter 1998 [7] longitudinal ELSA-CA 15-3 (CIS-Bio International), Gif-Sur-Yvette, France n = 12 <30 9.3 ± 4.0
(mean ± SD)
5 to 15 (range)
14.1 ± 4.1
10 to 22.8
16.5 ± 4.1
8.8 to 24.2
None above cut-off value
3 Botsis 1999 [8] cross-sectional EIA, Tumor markers CA 153, Abbott AXSYM system, Abbott Park, Il, USA T1 n = 20; T2 n = 29; T3 n = 26 <33 18.0 (median)
14 to 30 (range)
20
1.0 to 34
22
12 to 41
5%, 10% and 20% above cut-off value, in the 3 trimesters respectively
4 Cheli 1999 [9] cross-sectional Bayer Immuno 1 CA 15-3 assay, Tarrytown, New York, USA) T1 n = 32; T2 n = 5; T3 n = 53 <35 16.76 (mean) - 20.78 3.3% above cut-off value
5 Bon 2001 [10] cross-sectional Enzymun-Test CA 15-3 (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) T1 n = 127; T2 n = 192; T3 n = 47 Not stated 14.0 (median)
5.0 to 32 (range)
15.0
6.0 to 40
26.0
9 to 56
Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
6 Ercan 2011 [11] longitudinal Modular Analytics E 170 Module (Roche diagnostics), Basel, Switserland. n = 30 <25 17.5 (median)
7.6 to 39.3 (range)
19.7
10.4 to 39
18.3
7 to 38.6
16% above cut-off value
  1. SD, standard deviation; T, trimester.