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Table 2 Methylation studies in monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for personality and disease

From: Genetic, environmental and stochastic factors in monozygotic twin discordance with a focus on epigenetic differences

Study Condition Method Tissue MZ pairs, n Results
Weksberg et al. [83] Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome Southern blotting with DMR probes (H19, KvDMR1, SNRP) Lymphocytes and fibroblasts 10 Loss of methylation at KvDMR1 in all probands
Petronis et al. [91] Schizophrenia Bis-seq (DRD2) Lymphocytes 1 Discordance confirmed
Mill et al. [92] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Bis-seq (COMT) Buccal epithelial cells 12 0.1 to 52.3% discordance
Oates et al. [93] Caudal duplication Bis-seq (AXIN1) PBMC 1 Discordance confirmed
Kuratomi et al. [95] Bipolar disorder MS-RDA Lymphoblastoid cell lines 1 4 DMRs, 1 candidate gene
Kaminsky et al. [94] Risk-taking behavior MEDIP-chip PBMC 1 38 DMRs, 1 candidate gene
Mastroeni et al. [32] Alzheimer disease Immunohistochemistry Temporal neocortex 1 Discordance confirmed
Javierre et al. [96] Systemic lupus erythematosus MEDIP-chip White blood cells 5 49 DMRs, 8 candidate genes
Wong et al. [87] ADHD, depression, antisocial behavior Quantitative high-throughput mass spectrometry (DRD4, SERT, MAOA) Buccal epithelial cells 46 Discordance confirmed
Baranzini et al. [72] Multiple sclerosis RRBS CD4+ lymphocytes 3 2-178 DMRs, no candidate
Hu et al. [98] Autism MEDIP-chip Lymphoblastoid cell lines 3 73 DMRs, 2 candidate genes
Tierling et al. [118] Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome Bis-seq (11 DMR) Peripheral blood cells, buccal epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts, saliva 1 Hypomethylation at KvDMR1
Harder et al. [119] Optic glioma Bis-seq (NF1) Leukocytes 8 Discordance confirmed
Souren et al. [120] BMI Bis-seq Saliva 8 Small discordance identified, not correlated with BMI discordance
Rakyan et al. [90] Type 1 diabetes Illumina Array CD14+ cells 15 (+9 healthy control) 132 methylation variable positions
Dempster et al. [99] Schizophrenia/Bipolar disorder Illumina Array Whole blood 22 Disease-associated DMRs, including ST6GALNAC1 as the top candidate
Galetzka et al. [82] Childhood leukemia/secondary thyroid carcinoma Bis-seq (6 tumor suppressors) Skin fibroblasts 1 Increased BRCA1 methylation
Gervin et al. [100] Psoriasis Illumina Array CD4+ and CD8+ cells 27 No significant methylation difference. Significant correlation between some DMRs and psoriasis-associated gene expression differences
  1. Abbreviations: Bis-seq, bisulfite sequencing; BMI, body mass index; DMR, differentially methylated region; MS-RDA, Methylation-sensitive representational difference analysis; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; RRBS, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing; MeDIP-chip, Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation - chip