Skip to main content

Table 1 Specific mechanisms relating to the adjuvant properties of aluminum compounds [28]

From: Novel pebbles in the mosaic of autoimmunity

Mechanism Characteristics
Depot effect Alum-induced consolidation of the desired antigen at the injection site results in slow release of the antigen to antigen-presenting cells for an extended period of time
Activation of DCs by lipid sorting Aluminum salts induce activation of DCs and complement components, and increase the level of chemokine secretion in the injection site. Aluminum-based salts firmly bind to and alter the structure of lipids in the plasma membrane of DCs
NLRP3 inflammasome-independent DC activation Membrane proximal events unrelated to the NLRP3 inflammasome are sufficient to mediate DC activation in response to alum
Augmentation of adjuvant properties of alum by uric acid Increase in uric acid mediates upregulation of MHC class II in monocytes via an IL-4 dependent mechanism
Host cell DNA The host cell DNA can enhance the adjuvant properties of alum
Alum-dependent increase in IgE levels Promotes allergy
Amyloid plaque formation Alum promotes the formation of amyloid plaques by catalyzingpolymerization of β-amyloid
Increased Tau protein Alum may increase the levels of Tau protein
  1. Abbreviations: DC, dendritic cell; IL, interleukin; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; NLRP3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3.