Skip to main content

Table 2 Participants` characteristics

From: Use of illicit and prescription drugs for cognitive or mood enhancement among surgeons

Participants (total) N = 1,145 (= 100%)
Gender  
Male 797 (69.7%)
Female 346 (30.3%)
Age  
Years (Mean ± SD) 24 to 85 years (43.30 ± 10.67)
Family status:  
Married 875 (76.5%)
Divorced 67 (5.9%)
Single 189 (16.5%)
Widowed 13 (1.1%)
Children:  
Participants living with children 525 (48.0%)
Participants living without children 568 (52.0%)
Type of employer:  
University 315 (27.7%)
Hospital (other than University hospital) 636 (56.0%)
Doctor´s office/ Doctor´s surgery 159 (14.0%)
Other (for example, industry) 26 (2.3%)
Employment status:  
Surgeons in training (1st to 5th year) 646 (56.4%)
Senior surgeons 246 (21.5%)
Directors/deputy directors 253 (22.1%)
Hours of work (per week)  
Hours (Mean ± SD) 13 to 100 (56.77 ± 12.97)
Gross income:  
<40,000 € 64 (5.7%)
40,000 to 100.000 € 544 (48.6%)
100,000 to 150.000 € 298 (26.6%)
150,000 to200.000 € 102 (9.1%)
>200,000 € 111 (9.9%)
Satisfied with professional success  
Yes 975 (87.8%)
No 136 (12.2%)
Subjective evaluation of career opportunities  
Mean ± SD: 2.49 ± 0.94
  1 = 126 (11.5%)
2 = 488 (44.7%)
3 = 342 (31.3%)
4 = 91 (8.3%)
5 = 44 (4.0%)
Pressure to perform on the job  
Mean ± SD: 3.32 ± 1.18
  0 = 32 (2.8%)
1 = 67 (5.9%)
2 = 131 (11.5%)
3 = 318 (27.9%)
4 = 452 (39.7%)
5 = 138 (12.1%)
Pressure to perform in private life  
Mean ± SD: 2.01 ± 1.26
  0 = 140 (12.4%)
1 = 267 (23.7%)
2 = 329 (29.2%)
3 = 246 (21.9%)
4 = 118 (10.5%)
5 = 251 (2.2%)
Pressure to perform subjectively evaluated as burdensome  
Mean ± SD: 2.57 ± 1.28
  0 = 62 (5.5%)
1 = 196 (17.3%)
2 = 260 (22.9%)
3 = 323 (28.4%)
4 = 238 (21.0%)
5 = 57 (5.0%)
Pressure to perform subjectively evaluated as harmful to health  
Mean ± SD: 2.72 ± 1.34
  0 = 71 (6.3%)
  1 = 158 (14.0%)
2 = 233 (20.6%)
3 = 299 (26.4%)
4 = 292 (25.8%)
5 = 78 (6.9%)
  1. Use of 6-point Likert scale, 0 = not at all, 5 = very much in respect of the following items: Subjective evaluation of career opportunities; Pressure to perform; Subjective pressure to perform. Means are given with standard deviation (SD).
  2. Prevalence rates of cognitive enhancement (CE) and mood enhancement (ME) measured by anonymous questionnaires (AQ).