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Table 2 Biomarkers.

From: Collectives of diagnostic biomarkers identify high-risk subpopulations of hematuria patients: exploiting heterogeneity in large-scale biomarker data

Biomarker Units Analysis Clinical application
Protein mg/ml Bradford Assay Kidney disease
Creatinine µmol/L Daytona RX Series Clinical Analyzer (Randox) Kidney disease
Osmolality mOsm Löser Micro-Osmometer (Type 15) (Löser Messtechnik, Germany) Kidney disease
Bladder tumor antigen (BTA) U/ml ELISA (Polymedco) UC diagnosis
Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) (serum) ng/ml BAT Monitoring colorectal cancer
Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) ng/ml ELISA (USCNLIFE Science & Technology Co. Ltd) N/A
C-reactive protein (CRP) ng/ml BAT Acute inflammation/infection
D-dimer ng/ml BAT Pulmonary embolus
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) pg/ml ELISA (in house) UC prognosis
FAS pg/ml ELISA (Raybio, Inc) N/A
Hyaluronidase (HA) ng/ml ELISA (Echelon Biosciences Inc) N/A
Interleukin-1α (IL-1 α) pg/ml BAT N/A
Interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) pg/ml BAT N/A
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) pg/ml BAT N/A
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) pg/ml BAT N/A
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) pg/m BAT N/A
InterleukinL-8 (IL-8) pg/ml BAT N/A
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) pg/ml BAT N/A
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) ng/ml BAT N/A
MMP-9NGAL complex N/A ELISA (in house) N/A
Neutrophil-associated gelatinase lipocalin (NGAL) ng/ml BAT Kidney disease
Neuron specific enolase (NSE) ng/ml BAT  
Free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) (serum) ng/ml BAT Prostate cancer
Thrombomodulin (TM) ng/ml BAT N/A
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) pg/ml BAT N/A
Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) ng/ml BAT N/A
Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) ng/ml BAT N/A
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pg/ml BAT angiogenesis
Von Willeband factor (vWF) IU/ml BAT N/A
  1. Biomarkers were measured in triplicate except for those marked ‡ for which only a single analysis was undertaken. Twenty of the 29 biomarkers were measured using Biochip Array Technology (BAT) which facilitates the simultaneous analyses of multiple proteins [17]. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; UC urothelial cancer.