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Table 1 Rate of Clostridium difficile infection by previous diagnosis of major depression in Medicare beneficiaries

From: Depression, antidepressant medications, and risk of Clostridium difficileinfection

Characteristics Sample, n (%) No depression Depression
   Ratea 95% CI Ratea 95% CI
Age at first interviewb      
 <60 years 5277 (31.4) 125.1 82.2 to 168.0 332.9 193.5 to 472.2
 60 to 75 years 7258 (43.3) 178.2 145.2 to 211.1 239.8 182.9 to 296.7
 >75 years 4246 (25.3) 301.0 241.6 to 360.3 321.6 213.4 to 429.9
Gender      
 Men 7352 (43.8) 179.6 145.5 to 213.6 268.9 163.5 to 374.3
 Women 9429 (56.2) 212.2 173.6 to 250.8 289.3 233.6 to 345.1
Race      
 African-American 2232 (13.3) 221.5 136.7 to 306.2 346.4 173.6 to 519.3
 Other 14549 (86.7) 193.1 161.7 to 224.5 275.1 214.5 to 335.7
Ethnicity      
 Mexican-American 700 (4.2) 243.7 77.3 to 410.1 313.1 65.6 to 560.7
 Other Hispanic 486 (2.9) 204.9 272.4 to 382.6 234.2 129.8 to 338.6
 Non-Hispanic 15595 (92.9) 195.1 165.5 to 224.6 283.6 222.3 to 344.9
Body mass index      
 <18.5 kg/m2 366 (2.2) 348.2 87.9 to 608.6 475.5 115.3 to 835.6
 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 6311 (37.6) 185.0 149.2 to 220.8 279.0 185.7 to 372.2
 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 6851 (40.8) 188.4 151.7 to 225.1 300.8 210.7 to 390.9
 ≥30.0 kg/m2 3253 (19.4) 225.4 160.6 to 290.1 234.9 133.5 to 336.3
Education      
 No high-school degree 5691 (33.9) 247.6 203.2 to 291.9 254.4 170.5 to 338.2
 High-school degree 11090 (66.1) 172.1 137.7 to 206.5 299.6 234.0 to 365.3
Region of residence      
 Northeast 2958 (17.6) 265.3 193.1 to 337.4 366.5 194.9 to 538.1
 Midwest 4205 (25.1) 226.6 155.5 to 297.8 307.0 191.5 to 422.5
 South 6823 (40.7) 176.5 135.4 to 217.7 257.5 185.6 to 329.5
 West 2795 (16.7) 136.1 85.4 to 186.7 218.8 115.6 to 322.0
Overall 16781 197.1 168.0 to 226.1 282.9 226.3 to 339.5
  1. aNumber of individuals with CDI/100,000 person-years.
  2. bAge range 36 to 103 years.