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Table 4 Odds ratios for antidepressant medications and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized adults

From: Depression, antidepressant medications, and risk of Clostridium difficileinfection

   Unadjusted Adjusteda
Medications Using medication, n OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic anti-depressants
 Mirtazapine        
  Use (versus no use) 99 2.11 1.29 to 3.45 0.003 2.14 1.30 to 3.52 0.003
  Doses given, n   1.08 1.01 to 1.16 0.018 1.08 1.01 to 1.16 0.020
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
 Fluoxetine        
  Use (versus no use) 99 1.98 1.20 to 3.26 0.008 1.92 1.16 to 3.17 0.012
  Doses given, n   1.06 1.00 to 1.12 0.036 1.06 1.00 to 1.12 0.046
 Escitalopram        
  Use (versus no use) 80 0.97 0.48 to 1.95 0.929 0.98 0.48 to 1.97 0.945
  Doses given, n   1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.191 1.04 0.98 to 1.09 0.234
 Citalopram        
  Use (versus no use) 310 0.90 0.62 to 1.32 0.599 0.90 0.62 to 1.31 0.569
  Doses given, n   0.99 0.94 to 1.04 0.620 0.98 0.94 to 1.04 0.566
 Sertraline        
  Use (versus no use) 207 0.90 0.58 to 1.42 0.666 0.88 0.56 to 1.39 0.583
  Doses given, n   0.98 0.93 to 1.04 0.486 0.98 0.92 to 1.04 0.461
 Paroxetine        
  Use (versus no use) 78 0.87 0.42 to 1.82 0.716 0.86 0.41 to 1.80 0.692
  Doses given, n   0.98 0.88 to 1.09 0.693 0.98 0.88 to 1.09 0.680
Tricyclic anti-depressants
 Nortriptyline        
  Use (versus no use) 49 1.98 0.98 to 4.00 0.056 1.96 0.97 to 3.97 0.062
  Doses given, n   1.11 1.02 to 1.20 0.015 1.11 1.02 to 1.20 0.017
 Amitriptyline        
  Use (versus no use) 63 1.45 0.73 to 2.88 0.284 1.43 0.72 to 2.84 0.307
  Doses given, n   1.04 0.96 to 1.14 0.337 1.04 0.96 to 1.14 0.343
Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors
 Trazodone        
  Use (versus no use) 405 1.23 0.91 to 1.66 0.182 1.21 0.90 to 1.65 0.211
  Doses given, n   1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.184 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.197
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
 Duloxetine        
  Use (versus no use) 82 1.19 0.63 to 2.26 0.597 1.15 0.60 to 2.19 0.681
  Doses given, n   1.01 0.94 to 1.09 0.690 1.01 0.94 to 1.09 0.788
 Venlafaxine        
  Use (versus no use) 58 0.72 0.29 to 1.81 0.482 0.71 0.28 to 1.78 0.464
  Doses given, n   1.05 0.95 to 1.16 0.367 1.05 0.94 to 1.16 0.401
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors
 Bupropion        
  Use (versus no use) 97 1.08 0.59 to 2.00 0.801 1.02 0.55 to 1.89 0.948
  Doses given, n   0.95 0.85 to 1.06 0.357 0.94 0.85 to 1.05 0.306
  1. a. Adjusted for age, gender, race, antibacterial medications, PPIs, H2RAs, statins, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.