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Table 2 Strength of evidence for biological factors supporting merging in some way schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar I disorder

From: Informing DSM-5: biological boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

Biological factor Strength of evidence
Genetics—family studies Strongest
Genetics—twin studies Moderate
Genetics—candidate gene/GWAS Moderate
Brain—morphology Moderate
Pharmacotherapeutics—lithium, divalproex, lamotrigine, antipsychotics Weak
  1. GWAS, genome wide association studies.