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Table 1 Selection of imaging findings in psychiatric illness

From: Personalized medicine in psychiatry: problems and promises

Psychiatric illness Subgroup/genotype Imaging feature Sample Imaging method Reference
Major depressive disorder   • Reduced activity in frontal lobes Various PET, fMRI, EEG, SPECT [351]
   • Reduced HPC volumes Meta-analyses MRI [352, 353]
   • Greater reduction in HPC volume with increased duration of untreated MDD 38 male outpatients MRI [354]
   • Increased baseline activity in pulvinar nuclei bilaterally Meta-analysis PET and SPECT [343]
   • Increased amygdala, dorsal ACC, and insular response to negative stimuli compared with healthy controls Meta-analysis Task-based fMRI [343]
   • Reduced dlPFC and dorsal striatum response to negative stimuli compared with healthy controls Meta-analysis Task-based fMRI [343]
  5-HTTLPR -S or Lg allele: Increased amygdala reactivity to masked emotional faces; correlated to lifetime psychiatric hospitalization in MDD 35MDD, 32 controls fMRI [355]
  5-HTTLPR -S or Lg allele: Increased bilateral amygdala activation after emotional stimuli (allele effects are additive) 27 MDD on medication fMRI [356]
  5-HT1A - 1019G allele:
  5-HTTLPR- L/L: Reduced HPC volumes compared with controls 40 MDD, 40 controls MRI [357]
Late onset (LO) MDD 5-HTTLPR- L/L: Reduced HPC volumes compared with S/L or S/S genotypes 63 LO MDD, 72 EO MDD, 83 controls MRI [358]
Early onset (EO) MDD 5-HTTLPR -S allele: Reduced HPC volumes compared with left allele carriers    
Bipolar disorder   • Increased size of lateral ventricles (right ventricle only in [359]) Meta-analyses CT and MRI [359361]
   • Increased number of deep white-matter hyperintensities Meta-analyses CT and MRI [360363]
   • Increased number of subcortical gray-matter hyperintensities Meta-analysis MRI [362]
   • Increased activity in limbic structures (left side only in [364]) Meta-analyses fMRI and PET [364, 365]
   • Reduced activity in frontal structures (vlPFC and dlPFC [364])
  Pediatric population: • Reduced amygdala volume Meta-analyses MRI [365, 366]
Schizophrenia   • Reduced frontal-lobe activity at rest and during task activation Meta-analysis MRI, PET [367, 368]
   • Increased lateral ventricular size Meta-analyses CT and MRI [369, 370]
   • Increased D2 dopamine receptor density Meta-analysis PET and SPECT [371]
   • Reduced frontal gray matter Meta-analyses MRI [372, 373]
  SZ: • Reduced bilateral HPC volume relative to controls Meta-analyses MRI [374376]
  nonpsychotic 1st deg family: Meta-analysis MRI [370]
  BDNF 66Val/Val carriers: • Reduced activation of the cingulate, lateral PFC and lateral parietal regions during verbal memory task 58 high-risk subjects (first-degree or second-degree family with SZ) fMRI [377]
  1. +/−A, alcohol abuse positive/negative subjects; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Cho, choline; CT, computed tomography; DA, dopamine; dlPFC, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex; EO, early onset; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; 1H-MRS, proton MR spectroscopy; HPC, hippocampal; LO, late onset; MDD, major depressive disorder; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NAA, N-acetylaspartate; parahippocampal gyrus; PET, positron emission tomography; Tx, treated; vlPFC, ventral-lateral pre-frontal cortex; vmPFC, ventral-medial pre-frontal cortex.
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