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Table 1 Associations between hyperferritinemia and autoimmune diseases

From: The Hyperferritinemic Syndrome: macrophage activation syndrome, Still’s disease, septic shock and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

  Hyperferritinemia (%) Described associations between hyperferritinemia and autoimmune diseases
RA 4% [7] High concentrations of ferritin are found in synovial fluid and synovial cells of RA patients [5].
Significant correlations described between serum ferritin levels and disease activity by DAS28 score in RA patients [5].
MS 8% [6, 7] Loss of ferritin binding is involved in, or is a consequence of, demyelination associated with MS [4].
Ferritin levels are significantly elevated in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid only in chronic progressive active patients [4].
Hyperferritinemia is associated with male gender and a more progressive type of MS (that is, relapsing-progressive), whereas an inverse association was noted between the milder form of disease (relapsing-remitting) [6].
SLE 23% [7] Serum levels of ferritin during the more active stage of SLE exceeded those of RA patients and patients at less active stages of SLE [3].
Hyperferritinemia is associated with serositis and hematological manifestation [4].
ECLAM score is significantly higher in patients with hyperferritinemia [5].
Hyperferritinemia is associated with thrombocytopenia, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies in SLE patients with active disease [5].
APS Primary APS 8% In patients with APS syndrome, hyperferritinemia is associated with the presence of venous thrombotic events, cardiac, neurological and hematological manifestations [8].
Secondary APS 9% [8]
  1. APS antiphospholipid syndrome, DAS28 Disease Activity Score 28, ECLAM European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement, MS multiple sclerosis, RA rheumatoid arthritis, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus.