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Table 2 Risks of depression according to categories of daily alcohol intake

From: Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

Alcohol intake categories ( g / day ) 0 >0 to 5 >5 to 15 >15 Pfor liner trend
  Baseline alcohol intakea  
Cases/Person-years 195/7,777 114/5,728 79/5,390 55/4,760  
Crude model 1 (Ref.) 0.79 (0.63 to 1.00) 0.59 (0.46 to 0.77) 0.44 (0.33 to 0.60) <0.001
Age and sex-adjusted 1 (Ref.) 0.91 (0.72 to 1.15) 0.81 (0.62 to 1.07) 0.81 (0.58 to 1.14) 0.347
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.97 (0.75 to 1.25) 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) 0.79 (0.53 to 1.16) 0.522
  Updated alcohol intakeb  
Crude model 1 (Ref.) 0.63 (0.49 to 0.81) 0.49 (0.37 to 0.66) 0.37 (0.26 to 0.52) <0.001
Age and sex-adjusted 1 (Ref.) 0.73 (0.56 to 0.94) 0.71 (0.52 to 0.97) 0.71 (0.48 to 1.05) 0.727
Multiple-adjusted modelc 1 (Ref.) 0.73 (0.57 to 0.95) 0.69 (0.50 to 0.96) 0.69 (0.46 to 1.04) 0.773
  1. aHazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident depression according to categories of baseline daily alcohol intake.
  2. bRelative risks (95% confidence intervals) for categories of updated alcohol intake, using repeated measurements of diet during follow-up. To avoid reverse causality bias, an induction period of at least one year, but no longer than two years was assumed. We considered as incident cases of depression those occurring only during the second year of every two-year follow-up interval.
  3. cAdjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity (MET-min/d), total energy intake (Kcal/day), baseline body mass index (kg/m2), marital status, intervention group, recruiting center, educational level and the number of persons living at home.
  4. The PREDIMED Study 2003 to 2010.