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Table 2 Similarities in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O+NS) pathways and antioxidant levels between encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis (ED/MS) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

From: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O+NS)



Lipid peroxidation

Increased malondialdehyde


Elevated peroxynitrite

Nitrated amino acids

Elevated nitric oxide (NO)

Elevated inducible NO synthase (iNOS)

Raised isoprostane levels

Low vitamin E

Reduced levels of glutathione

Low zinc levels

Low coenzyme Q10 concentrations


O+NS implicated in pathology