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Table 2 Baseline predictors of deaths from all causes during follow-up

From: Hypnotics and mortality in an elderly general population: a 12-year prospective study

   Deaths-all causes   
   No N = 5,389 Yes N = 1,307   
Variable   n % n % Hazard ratio [95% CI]a P a
High level of educationb No 4,337 80.48 1,044 79.88 1 0.06
  Yes 1,052 19.52 263 20.12 0.87 [0.76;1.00]  
Living alone Yes 1,782 33.07 433 33.13 1 0.84
  No 3,607 66.93 874 66.87 1.01 [0.89;1.15]  
Confinement No 5,181 96.14 1,158 88.60 1 0.0001
  Yes 208 3.86 149 11.40 1.78 [1.49;2.13]  
Alcohol intake (g/day) <12 1,062 19.71 242 18.52 1.23 [1.06;1.42] 0.01
  12 to 36 3,900 72.37 911 69.70 1  
  >36 427 7.92 154 11.78 1.14 [0.96;1.36]  
Caffeine intake (mg/day) ≤125 1,362 25.27 371 28.39 1 0.86
  125 to 375 3,164 58.71 775 59.30 0.97 [0.85;1.09]  
  >375 863 16.01 161 12.32 0.97 [0.81;1.17]  
Smoking status Never 3,368 62.50 634 48.51 1 <0.0001
  Past 1,740 32.29 563 43.08 1.22 [1.07;1.40]  
  Current 281 5.21 110 8.42 1.73 [1.41;2.14]  
History of cardiovascular diseasec No 4,079 75.69 768 58.76 1 0.0001
  Yes 1,310 24.31 539 41.24 1.49 [1.33;1.67]  
Respiratory disease No 5,121 95.03 1,188 90.90 1 0.0001
  Yes 268 4.97 119 9.10 1.64 [1.36;1.98]  
Thyroid disease No 4,890 90.74 1,219 93.27 1 0.19
  Yes 499 9.26 88 6.73 1.16 [0.93;1.45]  
Depressive symptomatology No 4,209 78.10 983 75.21 1 0.0005
  Yes 1,180 21.90 324 24.79 1.26 [1.11;1.43]  
Antidepressant use No 5,072 94.12 1,205 92.20 1 0.0002
  Yes 317 5.88 102 7.80 1.47 [1.20;1.80]  
Spielberger trait anxiety <43 3,509 65.11 894 68.40 1 0.13
  ≥43 1,880 34.89 413 31.60 1.10 [0.97;1.23]  
Mini Mental State Examination Score ≥ 26 4,666 86.58 1,083 82.86 1 0.005
  <26 723 13.42 224 17.14 1.23 [1.07;1.43]  
Body mass index (kg/m2) Normal (<25) 2,611 48.45 613 46.90 1 0.0007
  Overweight (25 to 29) 2,118 39.30 503 38.49 1.01 [0.90;1.14]  
  Obese (≥30) 660 12.25 191 14.61 1.36 [1.15;1.60]  
Hypertension No 2,313 42.92 400 30.60 1 0.002
  Yes 3,076 57.08 907 69.40 1.21 [1.07;1.36]  
Diabetes mellitus No 4,965 92.13 1,126 86.15 1 0.0001
  Yes 424 7.87 181 13.85 1.58 [1.35;1.85]  
Hypercholesterolemia No 3,333 61.85 875 66.95 1 0.99
  Yes 2,056 38.15 432 33.05 1.00 [0.89;1.12]  
Snoring loudly (n = 5,972) Never/Rarely 3,114 64.93 770 65.48 1 0.90
  Frequently/Often 1,682 35.07 406 34.52 1.01 [0.89;1.14]  
Difficulties in initiating sleep Never/Rarely 3,506 65.06 895 68.48 1 0.20
  Frequently/Often 1,883 34.94 412 31.52 0.92 [0.81;1.04]  
Difficulties in maintaining sleep Never/Rarely 2,055 38.13 429 32.82 1 0.26
  Frequently/Often 3,334 61.87 878 67.18 1.07 [0.95;1.20]  
Early morning awakening Never/Rarely 3,434 63.72 871 66.64 1 0.12
  Frequently/Often 1,955 36.28 436 33.36 0.91 [0.81;1.02]  
Number of insomnia complaintsd 0 1,526 28.32 320 24.48 1 0.07
  1 1,595 29.60 460 35.20 1.14 [0.99;1.31]  
  2 1,227 22.77 315 24.10 1.08 [0.92;1.26]  
  3 1,041 19.32 212 16.22 0.92 [0.77;1.11]  
Excessive daytime sleepiness Never/Rarely 4,555 84.52 994 76.05 1 0.003
  Frequently/Often 834 15.48 313 23.95 1.23 [1.07;1.40]  
  1. aAdjusted for center study, gender and age; buniversity level; chistory of cardiovascular disease (stroke or coronary heart disease; dnumber of insomnia complaints: difficulties in initiating sleep + difficulties in maintaining sleep + early morning awakening.