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Table 3 Risks of death from all causes over 12-year according to hypnotic use

From: Hypnotics and mortality in an elderly general population: a 12-year prospective study

  All-cause death      
  No Yes Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
N = 5,389 N = 1,307
Variable n % n % HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P
Hypnotic use
 No 4,261 79.07 981 75.06 1 0.007 1 0.16 1 0.12 1 0.50 1 0.43
 Yes 1,128 20.93 326 24.94 1.19 [1.05;1.36]   1.10 [0.96;1.25]   1.12 [0.97;1.29]   1.05 [0.92;1.20]   1.06 [0.92;1.23]  
Number of hypnotics
 0 4,261 79.07 981 75.06 1 0.003 1 0.13 1 0.13 1 0.44 1 0.47
 1 970 18.00 272 20.81 1.14 [0.99;1.31]   1.06 [0.93;1.22]   1.09 [0.94;1.26]   1.02 [0.89;1.18]   1.04 [0.89;1.21]  
 ≥2 158 2.93 54 4.13 1.53 [1.16;2.01]   1.32 [1.00;1.74]   1.33 [0.98;1.81]   1.20 [0.90;1.60]   1.21 [0.88;1.65]  
BZD
 No 4,557 84.56 1069 81.79 1 0.003 1 0.05 1 0.05 1 0.22 1 0.21
 Yes 832 15.44 238 18.21 1.24 [1.08;1.44]   1.15 [1.00;1.33]   1.17 [1.00;1.37]   1.10 [0.95;1.28]   1.11 [0.94;1.30]  
BZD-like compounds
 No 5,135 95.29 1240 94.87 1 0.93 1 0.56 1 0.76 1 0.40 1 0.55
 Yes 254 4.71 67 5.13 1.01 [0.79;1.29]   0.93 [0.72;1.19]   0.96 [0.74;1.25]   0.90 [0.70;1.15]   0.92 [0.71;1.20]  
Miscellaneous medications
 No 5,241 97.25 1251 95.72 1 0.15 1 0.30 1 0.32 1 0.49 1 0.49
 Yes 148 2.75 56 4.28 1.22 [0.93;1.60]   1.15 [0.88;1.51]   1.16 [0.87;1.55]   1.10 [0.84;1.45]   1.11 [0.83;1.48]  
  1. aAdjusted for age, study center, and gender; badjusted for age, study center, gender, level of education, confinement, alcohol intake, smoking status, history of cardio and cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, Mini Mental State Examination score, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; cadjusted for all the covariates in model 2, plus excessive daytime sleepiness and number of insomnia complaints; dadjusted for all the covariates in model 2, plus depressive symptoms, antidepressant use and Spielberger trait anxiety score; eadjusted for all the covariates in model 3 plus depressive symptoms, antidepressants use and Spielberger trait anxiety score. BZD, benzodiazepines; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratios.