Skip to main content

Table 1 DNA barcode results listed for individual samples from blind testing of the 44 herbal products and 50 herbal leaf samples representing 42 medicinal species of plants

From: DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products

Market label or Herb leaf species Sample from Barcode ID ITS2 ID rbcL ID
Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) HP64C Achillea millefolium + Medicago sativa a Achillea millefolium + Medicago sativa a Medicago sativa a
Achillea millefolium HP56L Achillea millefolium Achillea millefolium Achillea sp.
Actaea racemosa (Cohosh) HP42C Actaea asiatica a Actaea asiatica a Actaea asiatica a
Actaea racemosa HP20C NS NS NS
Actaea racemosa HP45L Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa
Actaea racemosa HP74L Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa
Actaea racemosa HP77L Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa Actaea racemosa
Amaranthus sp. (Amaranth) HP89P Amaranthus sp. Amaranthus sp. Amaranthus sp.
Amaranthus albus HP79L Amaranthus albus Amaranthus albus Amaranthus sp.
Amaranthus retroflexus HP49L Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus sp.
Apium graveolens (Celery) HP34C Amaryllidaceae + Oryza sativa a Amaryllidaceae a Oryza sativa b
Apium graveolens HP32C NS NS NS
Apium graveolens HP43C NS NS NS
Apium graveolens HP13L Apium graveolens Apium graveolens Apiaceae
Apium graveolens HP5L Apium graveolens Apium graveolens Apiaceae
Apium graveolens HP51L Apium graveolens Apium graveolens Apiaceae
Arctium lappa (Burdock) HP6C Arctium lappa Arctium lappa Arctium lappa
Arctium lappa HP22C Oryza sativa a Oryza sativa b Oryza sativa b
Arctium lappa HP21C Ranunculaceae a Ranunculaceae a NS
Arctium lappa HP4L Arctium lappa Arctium lappa Arctium lappa
Arctium lappa HP92L Arctium lappa Arctium lappa Arctium lappa
Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) HP86T Ranunculaceae a Ranunculaceae a NS
Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) HP60L Cinnamomum cassia Cinnamomum cassia Cinnamomum sp.
Echinacaea purpurea (Echinacaea) HP35C Echinacaea purpurea + Parthenium hysterophorus a Echinacaea purpurea + Parthenium hysterophorus a Asteraceae a
Echinacaea purpurea HP27C Echinacaea purpurea + Parthenium hysterophorus a Echinacaea purpurea + Parthenium hysterophorus a Asteraceae a
Echinacaea purpurea HP88L Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea
Echinacaea purpurea HP80L Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea
Echinacaea purpurea HP70L Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea
Echinacaea purpurea HP85L Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea Echinacaea purpurea
Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) HP63C Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba HP28C Juglans nigra a Juglans nigra a NS*
Ginkgo biloba HP81C Oryza sativa a Oryza sativa b Oryza sativa b
Ginkgo biloba HP33L Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba HP2L Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba HP78L Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba HP16L Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba
Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) HP8C Fabaceae a Fabaceae a NS
Hypericum perforatum HP46C Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum perforatum HP82C Oryza sativa a Oryza sativa b Oryza sativa b
Hypericum perforatum HP39L Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum perforatum HP94L Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum
Juglans nigra (Walnut) HP40C Juglans nigra Juglans nigra NS
Juglans nigra HP58C NS NS NS
Juglans nigra HP84C Oryza sativa a NS Oryza sativa b
Juglans nigra HP30L Juglans nigra Juglans nigra Juglans nigra
Juglans nigra HP19L Juglans nigra Juglans nigra Juglans nigra
Juglans nigra HP17L Juglans nigra Juglans nigra Juglans nigra
Matricaria recutita (Chamomile) HP37C Matricaria recutita Matricaria recutita Matricaria recutita
Matricaria recutita (Chamomile) HP91C Matricaria recutita + Medicago sativa Matricaria recutita + Medicago sativa Medicago sativa
Matricaria recutita (Chamomile) HP36C Matricaria recutita + Glycine max Matricaria recutita Glycine max
Matricaria recutita HP76L Matricaria recutita Matricaria recutita Matricaria recutita
Mentha arvensis (Mint) HP3C Mentha arvensis Mentha arvensis Lamiaceae
Mentha arvensis HP52L Mentha arvensis Mentha arvensis Lamiaceae
Mentha spicata HP15L Mentha spicata Mentha spicata Lamiaceae
Nepeta cataria HP9L Nepeta cataria Nepeta cataria Lamiaceae
Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) HP48C Oenothera biennis Oenothera biennis Oenothera biennis
Origanum vulgare (Oregano) HP10C Origanum vulgare + Lamiaceae a Origanum vulgare + Lamiaceae a Lamiaceae a
Oenothera biennis HP47L Oenothera biennis Oenothera biennis Oenothera biennis
Origanum vulgare HP26L Origanum vulgare Origanum vulgare Origanum vulgare
Origanum vulgare HP50L Origanum vulgare Origanum vulgare Origanum vulgare
Oxalis Corniculata (WoodSorrel) HP1P Oxalis Corniculata + Medicago sativa a Oxalis Corniculata + Medicago sativa a Oxalis sp.
Oxalis Corniculata HP72L Oxalis Corniculata Oxalis Corniculata Oxalis sp.
Oxalis stricta HP57L Oxalis stricta Oxalis stricta Oxalis sp.
Oxalis acetosella HP18L Oxalis acetosella Oxalis acetosella Oxalis sp.
Plantago ovate (Psyllium) HP69C Plantago ovate Plantago ovate NS
Plantago ovate HP71L Plantago ovate Plantago ovate Plantago sp.
Plantago major HP66L Plantago major Plantago major Plantago sp.
Plantago lanceolata HP14L Plantago lanceolata Plantago lanceolata Plantago sp.
Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) HP83C Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea
Portulaca oleracea HP65C Portulaca oleracea + Glycine max b Portulaca oleracea + Glycine max b Glycine max b
Portulaca oleracea HP38L Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea
Portulaca oleracea HP93L Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea Portulaca oleracea
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry) HP24C Rubus idaeus Rubus idaeus Rubus sp.
Rubus idaeus HP12C Rubus idaeus + Medicago sativa a Rubus idaeus + Medicago sativa a Medicago sativa a
Rubus idaeus HP61L Rubus idaeus Rubus idaeus Rubus sp.
Rubus parviflorus HP29L Rubus parviflorus Rubus parviflorus Rubus sp.
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan) HP62C Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia hirta HP31L Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia hirta
Sambucus nigra (Elderberry) HP23C Sambucus nigra + Medicago sativa a Sambucus nigra + Medicago sativa a Sambucus sp.
Sambucus nigra HP59L Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus sp.
Sambucus racemosa HP54L Sambucus racemosa Sambucus racemosa Sambucus sp.
Sonchus arvensis (Thistle) HP87C Sonchus arvensis Sonchus arvensis Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus arvensis HP67C Sonchus arvensis + Medicago sativa a Sonchus arvensis + Medicago sativa a Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus arvensis HP73L Sonchus arvensis Sonchus arvensis Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus asper HP41L Sonchus asper Sonchus asper Sonchus asper
Symphytum officinale (Comfrey) HP7C Symphytum officinale + Medicago sativa a Symphytum officinale + Medicago sativa a Medicago sativa a
Symphytum officinale HP90L Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Boraginaceae
Taraxacum officinale HP25C Parthenium hysterophorus a Parthenium hysterophorus a Asteraceae a
Taraxacum officinale HP11C Taraxacum officinale + Panicum sp. a Taraxacum officinale + Panicum sp. a Panicum sp. a
Taraxacum officinale HP75C Triticum spp. + Musa sp. a Triticum spp. + Musa sp. a Musaceae a
Taraxacum officinale HP53L Taraxacum officinale Taraxacum officinale Taraxacum officinale
Urtica dioica (Nettles) HP55C Urtica dioica Urtica dioica Urtica dioica
Urtica dioica HP44C Urtica dioica + Oryza sativa b Urtica dioica b Oryza sativa b
Urtica dioica HP68L Urtica dioica Urtica dioica Urtica dioica
  1. aDesignates product contamination or substitution.
  2. bRefers to use of fillers.
  3. C capsule, L leaf, NS no sequence, P powder, T tablet.