Skip to main content

Table 1 Types of models involving health outcomes, from least to most complex.

From: Economic analyses to support decisions about HPV vaccination in low- and middle-income countries: a consensus report and guide for analysts

Model type Features Data requirements
   Demography Epidemiology Clinical
Static proportionate outcomes model Reduction in cervical cancer due to vaccination is the product of effective vaccine coverage and cervical-cancer incidence caused by vaccine-type HPV Population structure, birth and death rates Cervical-cancer incidence, mortality and proportion caused by HPV 16/18, by age None
Static progression model Represents the natural history of disease from HPV infection to cervical cancer, usually in a single birth cohort Population structure, birth and death rates Cervical-cancer incidence, mortality and proportion caused by HPV 16/18, by age; female HPV prevalence and clearance by age Uptake and efficacy of screening, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and pre-cancer
Transmission dynamic model Captures HPV transmission from infected to susceptible individuals in the entire population Population structure, birth and death rates, sexual behavior Cervical-cancer incidence, mortality and proportion caused by HPV 16/18, by age; HPV prevalence and clearance by age and sex Uptake and efficacy of screening, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and pre-cancer
Hybrid model Uses a static progression model to capture disease natural history, and a dynamic model to capture infection transmission Population structure, birth and death rates, sexual behavior Cervical-cancer incidence, mortality and proportion caused by HPV 16/18, by age; HPV prevalence and clearance by age and sex Uptake and efficacy of screening, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and pre-cancer