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Table 4 Common ADR types observed

From: Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children – a prospective observational cohort study of 6,601 admissions

Reaction type All reactions Reaction following GAb
  N % of all reactionsa N % of reaction types, where reaction followed GA
Nausea and/or vomiting 400 27.5% 295 73.8%
Pruritus 243 16.7% 232 95.5%
Constipation 155 10.6% 107 69.0%
Diarrhea (9/88 with vomiting) 88 6.0% 0 0.0%
Somnolence (without cardio-respiratory symptoms) 50 3.4% 34 68.0%
Respiratory depression (41)/arrest (3) 44 3.0% 43 97.7%
Candidiasis 41 2.8% 0 0.0%
Urinary retention 40 2.7% 37 92.5%
Rash 31 2.1% 3 9.7%
Hypokalemia 25 1.7% 0 0.0%
Hypotension 22 1.5% 9 40.9%
Hepatotoxicity(6)/increased transaminases (12)c 18 1.2% 1 5.6%
Stomatitis 16 1.1% 0 0.0%
Myoclonus 15 1.0% 14 93.3%
Pancytopenia 13 <1% 0 0.0%
Hyperglycemia 12 <1% 0 0.0%
Hypertension 11 <1% 2 18.2%
Allergic reactions 10 <1% 3 30.0%
Pain (4/10 pain in jaw, 2/10 back pain) 10 <1% 0 0.0%
Other reactions ( occurred <10 times) 213 14.6% 65 30.5%
Total 1,457   845 58.0%
  1. aIf the same patient experienced two types of reactions to the same medication(s) at the same time this would have been reported as one ADR case but will be listed here as two reaction types, for example, a patient with respiratory depression and bradycardia = one ADR case, but is listed as two reactions; breaction occurred post theater AND drugs given in theater and/or used in post-operative pain management were implicated; ctransaminases were raised in all cases. Additionally, if other parameters of liver function such as bilirubin and INR were also raised, we classified this as hepatotoxicity. ADR, adverse drug reaction, GA general anesthesia; N number, INR international normalized ratio.