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Table 3 Classification for the extracranial venous abnormalities determined by composite criteria or use of multimodal imaging with relative compensatory mechanisms

From: Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging

Types [2, 27, 36, 37, 48, 91, 98, 110, 152] Definition
Venous abnormalities determined by composite criteria and multimodal imaging modalities:  
CCSVI: • A cutoff for CCSVI diagnosis classification consists of two or more abnormal DS VH criteria.
VHISS: • VHISS is based on the sum of extracranial venous abnormality VH criteria based parameters measured for each of the five CCSVI criteria examined and is ranging from 0 to 16.
Multimodal imaging application for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities • Use of multimodal imaging criteria on DS, MRV, CV and IVUS to determine a significant narrowing of extracranial venous system with hemodynamic consequences for the intracranial venous drainage.
Compensatory mechanisms for venous abnormalities:  
Collateral veins: • The presence of two or more extracranial collateral veins and of epidural collateral veins may serve as an indirect sign of impaired venous outflow.
  1. Legend: CCSVI, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; CV, catheter venography; DS, Doppler sonography; IVUS, intravascular ultrasound; MRV, magnetic resonance venography; VH, venous hemodynamic criteria; VHISS, venous hemodynamic insufficiency score.