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Table 3 Differences in risk factors and prescribing between bipolar and controls for coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension patients standardised by age and gender

From: Multimorbidity in bipolar disorder and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease: a cross sectional study

Patients Bipolar Controls Odds ratio (95% CI)
CHD patients: n = 170 n = 80,985  
Current smokers, % 32.3 20.6 1.55 (1.11 to 2.17) P = 0.01
Ever smokers, % 67.6 63.3 1.00 (0.73 to 1.37) P = 0.95
  n = 147 n = 73,508  
Total cholesterol >5, % 18.6 18.3 1.02 (0.73 to 1.37) P = 0.95
  n = 170 n = 80,863  
Blood pressure not controlled, %* 1.1 2.3 0.24 (0.03 to 1.74) P = 0.16
Prescribed drugs n = 170 n = 81,297  
Aspirin or clopidogrel, % 69.3 73.6 0.81 (0.58 to 1.12) P = 0.20
Statin, % 70.0 74.9 0.69 (0.50 to 0.96) P = 0.02
No antihypertensive, % 29.4 15.8 2.08 (1.49 to 2.91) P <0.001
One antihypertensive, % 37.6 31.3 1.29 (0.94 to 1.76) P = 0.10
Two or more antihypertensives, % 32.9 52.7 0.46 (0.33 to 0.63) P <0.001
Hypertension patients: n = 462 n = 232,986  
Current smokers, % 27.9 17.1 1.87 (1.53 to 2.39) P <0.001
Ever smokers, % 54.5 48.9 1.25 (1.04 to 1.50) P <0.001
  n = 462 n = 232.915  
Blood pressure not controlled, %* 6.5 6.6 0.94 (0.64 to 1.37) P = 0.77
Prescribed drugs n = 462 n = 233,852  
Statin, % 36.7 41.5 0.82 (0.68 to 0.98) P = 0.04
No antihypertensive, % 21.8 13.9 1.70 (1.36 to 2.12) P <0.001
One antihypertensive, % 39.8 32.3 1.38 (1.15 to 1.67) P <0.001
Two or more antihypertensives, % 37.8 53.7 0.53 (0.44 to 0.68) P <0.001
  1. Prescribing based on previous 84 days. Antihypertensives include any angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotension II receptor blocker (ARB), beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, thiazide, alpha blocker, spironolactone or other antihypertensive.
  2. *Blood pressure not controlled calculated as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 plus diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 if aged under 80, and SBP ≥150 plus DBP ≥90 if aged 80 and over.