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Table 1 Studies examining alterations in the expression of genes involved in inflammation

From: Depression pathogenesis and treatment: what can we learn from blood mRNA expression?

Citation Type of study Sample Gene Clinical assessments Main findings
Tsao et al. 2006 [22] Case-control and follow-up 20 MDD
22 Controls
5-HTT
IL-1β
IL-6
TNF-α
IFN-α
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HDRS
Higher expression of 5-HTT, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-α in patients with MDD compared with controls. Significant decreased in expression of 5-HTT and IFN-α after 3 months of fluoxetine treatment.
Cattaneo et al. 2012 [23] Case-control and follow-up 74 MDD
34 Controls
IL-1α
IL-1β
IL-4
IL-6
IL-7
IL-8
IL-10
MIF
TNF-α
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria
SCAN
Higher expression of IL-1β, IL-6, MIF and TNF-α and lower expression of IL-4 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
IL-β, TNF-α and MIF expression predicted antidepressant response.
Significant decrease in IL-6 expression after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment (escitalopram or nortriptyline) in responders only.
Suzuki et al. 2010 [25] Case-control 43 MDD
43 Controls
ApoER2
VLDLR
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HAM-D
BPRS
Lower expression of ApoER2 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
No significant difference in expression of VLDLR.
Galecki et al. 2012 [29] Case-control 181 rDD
149 Controls
COX-2
MPO
NOS2A
PLA2G2A
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
or ICD-10 criteria
CIDI
Higher expression of COX-2, MPO,
NOS2A and PLA2G2A in patients with rDD compared with controls.
Weigelt et al. 2011 [33] Case-control 24 MDD
22 BPD
45 Controls
TREM-1
DAP12
PU.1
ATF3
EGR3
MXD1
MAFF
NAB2
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
SCID-I
Higher expression of TREM-1 and NAB2 in patients with BPD only.
Higher expression of PU.1 in patients with MDD and a trend for higher expression of TREM-1.
Higher expression of ATF3, EGR3, MAFF and MXD1 in patients with both MDD and BPD.
No significant difference in expression of DAP12 in either patient group.
  1. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; BPD: bipolar disorder; BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; CIDI: Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition; HAM-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HDRS: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases - 10th revision; MDD: major depressive disorder; rDD: recurrent depressive disorder; SCAN: Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, SCID-I: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder..