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Table 1 Biochemical and clinical characteristics of subjects

From: High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

  All Tanner 1 to 2 Tanner 2 to 3 Tanner 4 to 5
Subjects 406 154 140 112
M 198 93 75 30
F 208 61 65 82
Age, years 10.7 ± 3.1 8.4 ± 2.3 10.4 ± 2.0 14.2 ± 2.0
M 10.6 ± 2.8 9.0 ± 2.2 11.1 ± 2.1 14.6 ± 1.7
F 10.8 ± 3.4 7.6 ± 2.3 9.6 ± 1.5 14.0 ± 2.1
BMI, kg/m2 27.2 ± 4.8 25.2 ± 3.6 26.3 ± 4.0 31.1 ± 4.8
M 27.5 ± 4.8 26.1 ± 3.9 27.1 ± 4.1 32.7 ± 5.9
F 27.0 ± 4.8 23.9 ± 2.7 25.4 ± 3.8 30.6 ± 4.3
BMISDS 1.99 ± 0.59 1.95 ± 0.51 1.81 ± 0.53 2.26 ± 0.65
M 1.99 ± 0.57 1.98 ± 0.44 1.82 ± 0.55 2.40 ± 0.78
F 1.99 ± 0.60 1.90 ± 0.61 1.78 ± 0.50 2.21 ± 0.60
WC, cm 89.1 ± 13.2 82.5 ± 11.5 88.5 ± 11.1 100.1 ± 11.7
M 89.9 ± 13.2 84.8 ± 11.8 91.4 ± 11.2 104.4 ± 11.6
F 88.4 ± 13.3 79.0 ± 9.1 85.2 ± 10.2 98.7 ± 11.5
SBP, mmHg 127.1 ± 17.1 121.1 ± 12.6 125.6 ± 14.2 137.3 ± 21.1
M 128.7 ± 16.8 122.0 ± 13.1 129.2 ± 13.9 148.4 ± 19.0
F 125.6 ± 17.3 119.7 ± 11.8 121.4 ± 13.5 133.3 ± 20.4
DBP, mmHg 82.3 ± 10.9 78.7 ± 9.6 81.6 ± 10.6 88.0 ± 10.6
M 83.6 ± 10.8 80.1 ± 9.7 84.1 ± 10.3 93.4 ± 9.4
F 81.0 ± 10.8 76.4 ± 9.1 78.8 ± 10.3 86.0 ± 10.4
SBP percentile 90.4 ± 12.5 89.3 ± 12.2 89.7 ± 14.3 93.0 ± 10.1
M 91.0 ± 12.2 88.9 ± 12.5 91.6 ± 12.9 96.0 ± 6.2
F 89.9 ± 12.8 89.9 ± 10.7 87.4 ± 15.5 91.9 ± 11.0
DBP percentile 91.2 ± 11.5 90.5 ± 11.0 90.0 ± 12.9 93.7 ± 9.8
M 91.8 ± 11.4 91.0 ± 11.2 90.9 ± 12.8 96.8 ± 5.0
F 90.6 ± 11.6 89.9 ± 10.7 88.9 ± 13.0 92.6 ± 10.9
HDL, mmol/l 1.08 ± 0.24 1.15 ± 0.25 1.06 ± 0.23 1.00 ± 0.22
M 1.06 ± 0.23 1.13 ± 0.23 1.05 ± 0.22 0.91 ± 0.20
F 1.09 ± 0.25 1.18 ± 0.27 1.08 ± 0.25 1.04 ± 0.22
LDL, mmol/l 2.23 ± 0.59 2.36 ± 0.63 2.14 ± 0.54 2.18 ± 0.56
M 2.23 ± 0.63 2.37 ± 0.68 2.10 ± 0.53 2.16 ± 0.66
F 2.23 ± 0.54 2.35 ± 0.54 2.18 ± 0.55 2.19 ± 0.52
TG, mmol/l 0.87 ± 0.47 0.84 ± 0.46 0.84 ± 0.42 0.96 ± 0.54
M 0.88 ± 0.52 0.86 ± 0.47 0.83 ± 0.34 1.10 ± 0.89
F 0.86 ± 0.42 0.81 ± 0.44 0.85 ± 0.49 0.91 ± 0.32
Glc0', mmol/l 4.80 ± 0.47 4.73 ± 0.51 4.79 ± 0.45 4.91 ± 0.39
M 4.89 ± 0.44 4.86 ± 0.46 4.85 ± 0.41 5.06 ± 0.39
F 4.72 ± 0.48 4.55 ± 0.54 4.72 ± 0.49 4.86 ± 0.38
Glc120', mmol/l 6.05 ± 1.01 5.99 ± 0.90 6.11 ± 0.99 6.04 ± 1.13
M 6.09 ± 0.94 6.02 ± 0.91 6.02 ± 0.98 6.38 ± 0.91
F 6.00 ± 1.08 5.93 ± 0.89 6.25 ± 1.01 5.90 ± 1.18
Ins0', pmol/l 97.3 ± 62.8 80.3 ± 50.3 101.1 ± 61.0 115.7 ± 73.9
M 92.6 ± 50.7 79.0 ± 44.6 100.2 ± 46.4 114.0 ± 66.3
F 101.8 ± 72.4 82.3 ± 58.0 102.2 ± 75.6 116.4 ± 77.0
HOMA-IR 2.9 ± 2.0 2.4 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 2.0 3.5 ± 2.4
M 2.8 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 2.2
F 3.0 ± 2.3 2.4 ± 1.8 3.0 ± 2.4 3.5 ± 2.4
ACTH, pmol/l 5.90 ± 4.70 5.37 ± 3.99 6.26 ± 5.88 6.17 ± 3.86
M 6.53 ± 5.49 5.79 ± 4.39 6.74 ± 5.99 8.20 ± 4.10
F 5.30 ± 3.72 4.73 ± 3.21 5.70 ± 4.40 5.40 ± 3.40
Cortisol, nmol/l 327.9 ± 148.9 311.9 ± 138.2 320.3 ± 161.2 359.4 ± 140.8
M 324.8 ± 146.7 308.1 ± 135.6 327.8 ± 161.0 369.2 ± 137.2
F 330.8 ± 151.3 317.8 ± 143.0 313.6 ± 163.4 355.8 ± 142.8
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. BMI = body mass index; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; F = female; Glc0' = fasting glucose; Glc120' = post-challenge glucose; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance; Ins0' = fasting insulin; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; M = male; SBP = systolic blood pressure; TG = triglycerides; WC = waist circumference.