Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of cohort participants according to the number of traditional and non-traditional positive health behaviors.

From: Combined impact of traditional and non-traditional health behaviors on mortality: a national prospective cohort study in Spanish older adults

  Number of positive health behaviors
  0 to 1 2 3 4 5 6
N 91 257 604 1,084 1,029 400
Age, yr 76.5 ± 8.7 75.6 ± 8.9 73.2 ± 8.1 71.3 ± 7.7 70.7 ± 7.5 70.1 ± 7.0
Educational attainment       
No education 60.6 61.0 58.9 49.5 48.6 45.5
Primary 28.9 27.9 28.8 36.6 38.7 38.8
Secondary or higher 10.5 11.1 12.3 13.9 12.7 15.6
Occupational status       
Employed 10.2 15.1 11.9 10.8 10.4 10.1
Unemployed 0 0 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.4
Retired 88.3 82.8 85.8 85.2 86.6 88.2
Househusband/housewife 1.5 2.1 1.6 3.5 2.1 1.3
Alcohol intake, g/d 26.8 ± 71.9 17.8 ± 36.2 19.0 ± 43.6 15.3 ± 40.0 11.3 ± 28.5 9.8 ± 23.9
Former drinking 24.5 23.6 13.6 12.7 7.4 9.7
Extreme sleep durations a 5.5 3.2 2.8 2.1 1.4 0
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.1 ± 5.1 28.6 ± 5.2 28.9 ± 4.9 28.9 ± 4.2 28.9 ± 4.5 28.8 ± 4.0
Waist circumference, cm 98.9 ± 11.8 99.6 ± 12.7 100.2 ± 14.0 99.2 ± 11.3 97.9 ± 11.3 98.0 ± 11.6
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 145.4 ± 21.7 145.5 ± 21.9 144.7 ± 20.4 142.8 ± 18.7 142.1 ± 18.6 143.4 ± 18.5
Hypercholesterolemia 12.6 25.6 24.8 25.0 25.9 27.1
Comorbidities       
Coronary heart disease 10.5 8.7 4.1 2.8 1.2 1.8
Stroke 9.6 9.0 8.2 4.9 5.0 3.9
Diabetes mellitus 19.0 17.9 15.5 14.3 14.4 13.3
Hip fracture 8.3 4.6 2.8 2.5 2.3 0.4
Cancer 1.6 3.0 2.9 1.4 1.6 1.5
  1. Values are mean ± SD or %. Participants scored one point for each health behavior: never smoking or quitting tobacco >15 years; being very/moderately physically active; healthy diet score ≥median in the cohort; sleeping 7 to 8 h/d; sitting time <8 h/d; interaction with friends daily. a Sleeping ≤3 or ≥16 h/day.