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Table 2 Mortality risk according to traditional and non-traditional health behaviors in older adults

From: Combined impact of traditional and non-traditional health behaviors on mortality: a national prospective cohort study in Spanish older adults

  N/deaths Model 1
HR (95% CI)
Model 2
HR (95% CI)
Traditional health behavior    
Never smoking or quitting tobacco >15 years    
No 793/331 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 2,672/913 0.61 (0.51 to 0.73) 0.65 (0.55 to 0.78)
Very/moderately physically active    
No 855/478 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 2,610/766 0.55 (0.48 to 0.63) 0.63 (0.55 to 0.72)
Healthy diet score ≥median in the cohort    
No 1,741/695 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 1,724/549 0.80 (0.70 to 0.90) 0.79 (0.70 to 0.89)
Non-traditional health behavior    
Sleeping 7 to 8 h/d    
No 2,062/840 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 1,403/404 0.76 (0.67 to 0.87) 0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)
Sitting time <8 h/d    
No 479/288 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 2,986/956 0.56 (0.47 to 0.65) 0.70 (0.60 to 0.82)
Interaction with friends daily    
No 573/269 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 2,892/975 0.78 (0.65 to 0.93) 0.92 (0.79 to 1.08)
  1. HR, Hazard ratio; CI, Confidence interval. Model 1: Adjusted for age (years), sex (men, women), and educational attainment (no education, primary, secondary or higher). Model 2: Adjusted as in Model 1 and additionally for occupational status (employed, unemployed, retired, househusband/housewife), alcohol intake (g/d), former drinking (yes, no), extreme sleep durations (yes, no), body mass index (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), systolic blood pressure (mm Hg), hypercholesterolemia status (yes, no), coronary heart disease (yes, no), stroke (yes, no), diabetes mellitus (yes, no), hip fracture (yes, no), cancer (yes, no), and the other health behaviors included in this table.