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Table 3 Mortality risk according to number of traditional and non-traditional positive health behaviors in Spanish older adults

From: Combined impact of traditional and non-traditional health behaviors on mortality: a national prospective cohort study in Spanish older adults

  Number of positive health behaviors  
  0 to 1 2 3 4 5 6 P for trend
3 traditional health behaviors a        
N / deaths 871/464 1,564/518 1,030/262     
Model 1- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.56 (0.48 to 0.65) 0.45 (0.38 to 0.53) NA NA NA <0.001
Model 2- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.61 (0.52 to 0.71) 0.51 (0.43 to 0.60) NA NA NA <0.001
3 non-traditional health behaviors b        
N / deaths 615/345 1,767/613 1,083/286     
Model 1- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.68 (0.58 to 0.80) 0.54 (0.45 to 0.65) NA NA NA <0.001
Model 2- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.77 (0.66 to 0.90) 0.64 (0.53 to 0.76) NA NA NA <0.001
3 traditional + 3 non-traditional health behaviors       
N / deaths 91/73 257/167 604/285 1,084/367 1,029/267 400/85  
Model 1- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.62 (0.46 to 0.83) 0.40 (0.30 to 0.53) 0.31 (0.24 to 0.41) 0.25 (0.19 to 0.33) 0.20 (0.14 to 0.27) <0.001
Model 2- HR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.63 (0.46 to 0.85) 0.41 (0.31 to 0.55) 0.32 (0.24 to 0.42) 0.26 (0.20 to 0.35) 0.20 (0.15 to 0.28) <0.001
  1. CI, Confidence interval; HR, Hazard ratio. a Traditional health behaviors: never smoking or quitting tobacco >15 years; being very/moderately physically active; having a healthy diet score ≥ median in the cohort. b Non-traditional health behaviors: sleeping 7 to 8 h/d; sitting time <8 h/d; interaction with friends daily. Models 1 and 2 are adjusted as in Table 2.