Forest plots of placebo-controlled randomized trials examining the pooled effects of statins on testosterone for men (top panel), women (middle panel) and both sexes (bottom panel). In Kazerooni et al. , the reported SD was much smaller than in other trials, whereas the reported SD multiplied by the square root of the sample size was similar to the SDs reported in other trials. If we were to assume that the reported SD was actually the standard error, the pooled estimate for women would be -0.40 nmol/l (95% CI -0.83 to 0.03) and the overall pooled estimate would be -0.44 nmol/l (95% CI -0.80 to -0.08). Mean = mean difference; SD = standard deviation.