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Table 1 Characteristics of cross-sectional KORA S4.

From: Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on human serum metabolite profile: results from the KORA cohort study

  Current smoker Former smoker Never smoker P a
     Current versus former smoker Current versus never smoker
Male (N = 646)     
N (%) 125 (19.3%) 321 (49.7%) 200 (31.0%)   
Age (years) 62.2 ±5.3 65.3 ± 5.3 64.1 ± 5.6 7.9e-08 3.0e-03
BMI (kg/m2) 27.0 ±3.6 28.9 ±3.6 27.8 ±3.4 1.5e-06 6.5e-02
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 27.5 ±29.0 24.1 ±24.3 20.5 ±21.3 0.25 0.02
Pack yearsb 39.3 ±22.4     
Quit timec (years)   23.6 ±12.6    
Female (N = 595)
N (%) 70 (11.8%) 130 (21.8%) 395 (66.4%)   
Age (years) 61.3 ±5.2 64.0 ±5.2 64.6 ±5.3 7.5e-04 5.9e-06
BMI (kg/m2) 27.2 ±4.5 28.7 ±5.0 28.5 ±4.6 0.029 0.02
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 6.5 ±10.9 10.0 ±12.8 7.5 ±11.1 0.042 0.48
Pack yearsb 25.8 ±15.3     
Quit timec (years)   20.9 ±13.1    
  1. The study characteristics of KORA S4 are shown separately for current, former and never smokers. Values are shown as mean ±SD when appropriate. a P-values are calculated by student's t-test; bcalculated as the number of cigarettes consumed per day × years of smoking/20; c the time till the survey is conducted since the person has stopped smoking. BMI: body mass index.