Skip to main content

Table 1 Student characteristics, self-ratings and scores in the electrocardiogram (ECG) entry examination as well as the summative end-of-module examination the six study groups.

From: Summative assessments are more powerful drivers of student learning than resource intensive teaching formats

Term Winter 2008/2009 Winter 2008/2009 Summer 2009 Summer 2009 Winter 2009/2010 Summer 2010 ANOVA/χ2 test
Number of students 82 80 81 77 148 66  
Teaching format Lectures PT Lectures PT SDL SDL  
Assessment consequences Summative Summative Formative Formative Summative Formative  
Age, years 23.9 (2.4) ± 0.5 24.1 (2.7) ± 0.6 24.0 (1.8) ± 0.4 24.1 (2.4) ± 0.5 24.5 (2.6) ± 0.4 24.6 (2.7) ± 0.7 F = 0.920; P = 0.479
Percentage score achieved in the ECG entry examination 26.7 (14.0) ± 3.1 26.8 (13.6) ± 3.0 20.0 (12.8) ± 2.9 20.8 (12.6) ± 2.9 25.2 (14.3) ± 2.4 24.0 (13.8) ± 3.4 F = 3.747; P = 0.002
Percentage score in the summative end-of-module module examination 80.3 (8.2) ± 1.8 79.6 (8.6) ± 1.9 74.6 (8.5) ± 1.9 76.6 (7.3) ± 1.7 79.8 (9.4) ± 1.6 77.2 (9.9) ± 2.4 F = 5.794; P <0.001
Female sex, % (n) 59.8 (49) 58.8 (47) 58.0 (47) 57.1 (44) 52.7 (78) 63.6 (42) χ2 = 2.646; P = 0.754
'I need some external pressure in order to be motivated to learn', % (n) agreement 45.1 (37) 38.8 (31) 44.4 (36) 40.3 (31) 31.8 (47) 33.3 (22) χ2 = 6.415; P = 0.268
'Preferably, I learn those things that will be tested in exams', % (n) agreement 62.2 (51) 51.3 (41) 64.2 (52) 54.5 (42) 52.7 (78) 48.5 (32) χ2 = 6.364; P = 0.272
'In my view, the electrocardiogram (ECG) as an important diagnostic tool', % (n) agreement 98.8 (81) 98.8 (79) 95.1 (77) 96.1 (74) 98.6 (146) 93.9 (62) χ2 = 6.857; P = 0.231
'I am looking forward to learning something about ECG interpretation in this module', % (n) agreement 93.9 (77) 92.5 (74) 87.7 (71) 89.6 (69) 87.2 (129) 87.9 (58) χ2 = 3.801; P = 0.578
'I have read a book on ECG interpretation before', % (n) agreement 32.9 (27) 25.0 (20) 12.3 (10) 15.6 (12) 20.3 (30) 13.6 (9) χ2 = 15.251; P = 0.009
'I have already learned some bits and pieces about the ECG prior to this module', % (n) agreement 8.5 (7) 7.5 (6) 2.5 (2) 7.8 (6) 3.4 (5) 4.5 (3) χ2 = 5.741; P = 0.332
'I expect to be taught all the relevant facts and skills about ECG interpretation during the teaching sessions of the cardiovascular module', % (n) agreement 74.4 (61) 85.0 (68) 84.0 (68) 90.9 (70) 88.5 (131) 89.4 (59) χ2 = 12.098; P = 0.033
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) ± standard error or % (n) as appropriate. ANOVA = analysis of variance; PT = peer teaching; SDL = self-directed learning.