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Table 4 Association between processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality by sex, alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking status, and fruit and vegetable consumption.

From: Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

   Intake (g/day)  
   0-9.9 10-19.9 20-39.9 40-79.9 80-159.9 160+ P-interaction
Sex
   Males HR 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.04 1.13 1.32  
  (95% CI) (0.91, 1.07) (ref.) (0.94, 1.07) (0.98, 1.12) (1.04, 1.22) (1.12, 1.54)  
   Females HR 1.05 1.00 1.04 1.09 1.22 1.37  
  (95% CI) (1.00, 1.10) (ref.) (0.99, 1.09) (1.04, 1.16) (1.10, 1.34) (0.94, 2.00) 0.88
Alcohola
   <median HR 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.08 1.19 1.35  
  (95% CI) (0.94 to 1.06) (ref.) (0.97 to 1.08) (1.02 to 1.15) (1.09 to 1.30) (1.09 to 1.69)  
   ≥median HR 1.03 1.00 1.05 1.1 1.19 1.45 0.71
  (95% CI) (0.97 to 1.10) (ref.) (0.99 to 1.11) (1.03 to 1.17) (1.09 to 1.31) (1.19 to 1.77)  
BMI
   <25 kg/m2 HR 1.06 1.00 1.03 1.10 1.15 1.63  
  (95% CI) (1.00 to 1.13) (ref.) (0.97 to 1.09) (1.03 to 1.18) (1.04 to 1.28) (1.27 to 2.09)  
   ≥25 kg/m2 HR 0.99 1.00 1.04 1.09 1.25 1.38  
  (95% CI) (0.93 to 1.05) (ref.) (0.99 to 1.10) (1.03 to 1.15) (1.15 to 1.35) (1.15 to 1.65) 0.04
Smoking status
   Never HR 1.02 1.00 0.99 1.01 1.15 1.24  
  (95% CI) (0.96, 1.09) (ref.) (0.93, 1.05) (0.94, 1.08) (1.03, 1.29) (0.89, 1.72)  
   Former HR 1.03 1.00 1.07 1.14 1.26 1.68  
  (95% CI) (0.95, 1.11) (ref.) (0.99, 1.14) (1.06, 1.24) (1.12, 1.41) (1.29, 2.18)  
   Current HR 1.04 1.00 1.08 1.15 1.26 1.47  
  (95% CI) (0.95, 1.13) (ref.) (1.01, 1.16) (1.07, 1.25) (1.13, 1.40) (1.18, 1.83) 0.01
Fruits and vegetables
   <median HR 1.1 1.00 1.04 1.1 1.2 1.53  
  (95% CI) (1.04 to 1.17) (ref.) (0.99 to 1.10) (1.04 to 1.16) (1.11 to 1.30) (1.29 to 1.83)  
   ≥median HR 0.99 1.00 1.03 1.08 1.2 1.27  
  (95% CI) (0.94 to 1.05) (ref.) (0.97 to 1.08) (1.01 to 1.15) (1.09 to 1.32) (0.99 to 1.63) 0.001
  1. aCut-offs: alcohol: 14.8 g (men), 3.8 g (women); fruits and vegetables: 326 g (men), 414 g (women). BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard rate.