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Table 5 Association between meat consumption and cause-specific mortality in EPIC.

From: Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  Cardiovascular diseases Cancer Respiratory diseases Digestive tract Other cause of death
Intake (g/d) Ncases HRa 95% CI Ncases HRa 95% CI Ncases HRa 95% CI Ncases HRa 95% CI Ncases HRa 95% CI
Red meat
0 to 9.9 695 1.03 (0.92, 1.16) 1077 1.04 (0.95, 1.14) 164 1.09 (0.84, 1.41) 74 0.81 (0.58, 1.14) 1019 1.10 (1.00, 1.21)
10 to 19.9 613 1.00 (ref.) 1052 1.00 (ref.) 116 1.00 (ref.) 74 1.00 (ref.) 833 1.00 (ref.)
20 to 39.9 1395 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 2477 1.04 (0.96, 1.12) 227 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) 170 0.95 (0.72, 1.25) 1971 1.02 (0.94, 1.11)
40 to 9.9 1862 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 3353 0.99 (0.91, 1.06) 357 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) 239 0.84 (0.64, 1.11) 2800 0.98 (0.90, 1.07)
80 to 159.9 924 1.04 (0.93, 1.17) 1759 1.03 (0.95, 1.13) 194 1.05 (0.81, 1.37) 144 0.88 (0.64, 1.21) 1433 1.03 (0.94, 1.14)
160+ 67 1.07 (0.82, 1.40) 143 1.21 (1.00, 1.46) 10 0.80 (0.40, 1.60) 14 1.02 (0.55, 1.90) 112 1.17 (0.95, 1.44)
Per 100 g/day
Observed   1.10 (1.00, 1.19)   1.01 (0.94, 1.08)   1.02 (0.83, 1.24)   1.04 (0.82, 1.32)   1.01 (0.95, 1.09)
Calibrated   1.09 (1.00, 1.18)   1.00 (0.94, 1.07)   1.06 (0.88, 1.28)   1.03 (0.83, 1.29)   1.02 (0.94, 1.10)
Processed meat
0 to 9.9 1635 1.06 (0.96, 1.16) 2223 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 322 1.11 (0.90, 1.37) 161 1.08 (0.83, 1.41) 1654 1.10 (1.02, 1.18)
10 to 19.9 855 1.00 (ref.) 1848 1.00 (ref.) 171 1.00 (ref.) 112 1.00 (ref.) 1547 1.00 (ref.)
20 to 39.9 1335 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 2745 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) 287 1.21 (0.99, 1.47) 209 1.30 (1.02, 1.64) 2496 1.03 (0.97, 1.10)
40 to 79.9 1222 1.16 (1.05, 1.28) 2252 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 220 1.29 (1.04, 1.61) 178 1.37 (1.06, 1.78) 1889 1.09 (1.02, 1.18)
80 to 159.9 453 1.35 (1.18, 1.54) 714 1.08 (0.98, 1.19) 60 1.27 (0.91, 1.77) 48 1.18 (0.80, 1.73) 526 1.28 (1.14, 1.43)
160+ 56 1.72 (1.29, 2.30) 79 1.15 (0.90, 1.46) 8 1.73 (0.82, 3.65) 7 1.58 (0.70, 3.54) 56 1.64 (1.24, 2.18)
Per 50 g/day
Observed   1.15 (1.09, 1.21)   1.06 (1.02, 1.10)   1.10 (0.98, 1.25)   1.04 (0.91, 1.20)   1.11 (1.06, 1.15)
Calibrated   1.30 (1.17, 1.45)   1.11 (1.03, 1.21)   1.22 (0.97, 1.54)   1.09 (0.82, 1.47)   1.22 (1.11, 1.34)
Poultry
0 to 4.9 1494 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 2502 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) 297 1.11 (0.91, 1.35) 189 1.03 (0.81, 1.30) 2220 1.09 (1.01, 1.17)
5 to 9.9 982 1.00 (ref.) 1706 1.00 (ref.) 184 1.00 (ref.) 132 1.00 (ref.) 1383 1.00 (ref.)
10 to 19.9 1565 1.00 (0.92, 1.09) 2649 1.00 (0.94, 1.06) 294 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 191 0.89 (0.71, 1.12) 2286 0.98 (0.91, 1.05)
20 to 39.9 907 0.92 (0.83, 1.01) 1853 0.99 (0.93, 1.07) 153 0.95 (0.75, 1.20) 121 0.85 (0.66, 1.11) 1344 1.02 (0.95, 1.11)
40 to 79.9 541 0.90 (0.81, 1.01) 1024 1.01 (0.93, 1.10) 123 1.05 (0.82, 1.34) 68 0.85 (0.63, 1.16) 853 1.00 (0.92, 1.10)
80+ 67 0.94 (0.73, 1.21) 127 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 17 1.37 (0.82, 2.28) 14 1.42 (0.80, 2.50) 82 1.10 (0.88, 1.39)
Per 50 g/day
Observed   0.93 (0.85, 1.01)   0.97 (0.91, 1.03)   1.21 (1.06, 1.38)   0.89 (0.71, 1.13)   1.01 (0.95, 1.07)
Calibrated   0.84 (0.69, 1.03)   0.98 (0.82, 1.16)   1.32 (1.02, 1.73)   0.72 (0.41, 1.29)   1.05 (0.91, 1.21)
  1. astratified by age (one-year age groups), sex, study center, adjusted for education (five categories), body weight (continuous), body height (continuous), total energy intake (continuous), alcohol consumption (continuous), physical activity (four categories), smoking status (seven categories), smoking duration (six categories); CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard rate; N, number.
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