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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: A multifactorial interdisciplinary intervention reduces frailty in older people: randomized trial

  Intervention group (n = 120) Control group (n = 121) P a
Characteristic    
Male (%) 39 (33%) 39 (32%) 0.96
Age (year) 83.4 ±5.81 83.2 ±5.91 0.80
Lives alone (%) 60 (50%) 51 (42%) 0.22
Number of frailty criteria presentb (%)    0.84
   Three 77 (64%) 79 (65%)  
   Four 33 (28%) 30 (25%)  
   Five 10 (8%) 12 (10%)  
Weight 68.5 (15.7) 69.3 (17.3) 0.70
Exhaustion (%) 77 (64%) 76 (63%) 0.83
Grip strength (kg) 15.8 (7.2) 15.3 (7.2) 0.70
Gait speed (m/s) 0.48 (0.18) 0.50 (0.17) 0.32
Low physical activity (%) 73 (61%) 83 (69%) 0.21
Frailty, mean Cardiovascular Health Study score Health status 3.44 (0.65) 3.45 (0.67) 0.96
Coexisting conditionsc 5.87 ±2.33 5.75 ±2.24 0.70
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.1 ±5.91 26.4 ±6.04 0.67
Geriatric Depression Scaled,e 4.76 ±3.18 5.06 ±3.19 0.47
Mini Mental State Examinationd,e 26.6 ±2.59 25.9 ±3.14 0.07
Functioning    
Disability, Barthel Indexe 93.9 ±11.1 92.5 ±14.3 0.40
Mobility, Short Physical Performance Batterye 5.21 ±1.89 5.74 ±2.12 0.04
Mobility, lower extremity continuous summary performance scoree 1.74 ±0.43 1.86 ±0.45 0.05
Health-related quality of life, EuroQol-5De 7.67 ±1.47 7.83 ±1.50 0.39
Health-related quality of life, EuroQol-5D VASe 58.2 ±15.8 57.9 ±18.4 0.90
  1. Data presented as number (%) or mean ±standard deviation. a P-values were derived from the chi-square test or analysis of variance. bFrailty phenotype as specified using Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. cSelf-reported, doctor-diagnosed medical conditions. dMissing data for Geriatric Depression Scale (n = 1), Mini Mental Status Examination (n = 2). eThe Geriatric Depression Scale (short form) has scores between 0 and 15 with a higher score indicating more depressive symptoms. For the Mini Mental Status Examination, higher scores indicate higher cognitive function with a maximum score of 30. The Barthel Index has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better basic activities of daily living functioning. The Short Physical Performance Battery [7] has scores between 0 and 12, and the lower extremity continuous summary performance [15] scale has scores between 0 and 2.71; in both, better mobility function is indicated by a higher score. The EQ-5D has scores between 5 and 15 with higher scores indicating worse health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D VAS has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life. VAS: visual analog scale.