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Table 1 Significant associations of autoimmune diseases in first degree relatives.

From: How do autoimmune diseases cluster in families? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Proband´s disease Author Disease in first degree relatives References
Autoimmune thyroid disease Boelaert et al. AdD, CD, IBD, MG, MS, PA, RA, SLE, T1D, VIT [33]
  Hemminki et al. In parent: AdD, IIM, MG, PA, RA, T1D, UC [34]
   In sibling: Discoid lupus erythematosus, localized SSc, T1D  
   In parent and sibling: SLE  
Type 1 diabetes Bottazo et al. AITD [36]
  Anaya et al. AITD [37]
  Wagner et al. AITD,CD, PSO, RA, VIT [38]
  Hemminki et al. In parent: AdD, AITD, AS, CD, PA, PBC, RA, SLE, UC, WG [39]
   In sibling: AdD, AITD, CD  
   In parent and sibling: RA  
  Lebenthal et al. AITD, CD [41]
Systemic lupus erythematosus Criswell et al. AITD [35]
  Alarcon-Segovia et al. AITD, IIM, RA, SSc [42]
  Priori et al. AITD, RA, T1D, VIT [43]
  Corporaal et al. MS, RA [44]
Rheumatoid arthritis Lin et al. AITD, T1D, [45]
  Thomas et al. T1D [46]
  Hemminki et al. In parent: AITD, AS, Localized SSc, PA, PSO, SLE, SS, SSc, WG [47]
   In sibling: PSO, SLE  
  Jawaheer et al. AITD [48]
Multiple sclerosis Barcellos et al. AITD, PSO, RA, T1D [32]
  Criswell et al. PSO [35]
  Broadley et al. AITD [49]
  Deretzi et al. AITD, IBD, PSO, T1D [50]
  Heinzlef et al. AITD, RA, T1D, VIT [51]
  Henderson et al. AS [52]
  Marrosu et al. T1D [53]
  Nielsen et al. AdD, CrD, PAN, [55]
Systemic sclerosis Arora-Singh et al. AITD, RA, SLE, [57]
  Hudson et al. AITD, PBC, RA, SLE, SS [58]
  Koumakis et al. AITD, RA, SLE, SS [59]
Sjögren's syndrome Reveille et al. AITD, MS, SLE, SSc [61]
  Anaya et al. AITD, RA, SLE [62]
Inflammatory bowel disease Criswell et al. MS [35]
Ulcerative colitis Hemminki et al. In parent: AITD, AS, CrD, MS, PA, PAN, PSO, RA, SLE, T1D [63]
   In sibling: AS, CrD  
   In parent and sibling: CrD, PSO  
Crohn's disease Hemminki et al. In parent: AS, PSO, UC [63]
   In sibling: AS, UC  
   In parent and sibling: RA, UC  
   In twins: UC  
Vitiligo Alkhateeb et al. AdD, AITD, MG, PA, SLE, SSc [64]
  Laberge et al. AdD, AITD, PA, PSO, RA [65]
  Zhang et al. AA, PSO, RA [66]
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Prahalad et al. AITD [67]
  Huang et al. AITD, AS, PSO, SLE [68]
Juvenile lupus erythematosus Huang et al. AITD, AS, MG [68]
Inflammatory idiopathic myositis Ginn et al. AITD, PA, PSO, RA, SS, T1D [70]
Celiac disease Petaros et al. AITD, PSO, T1D [72]
  Cataldo et al. AITD, T1D [73]
  Neuhausen et al. JRA, T1D [74]
Alopecia areata Kakourou et al. AITD, CD, PSO, T1D, VIT [75]
  1. AA, alopecia areata; AdD, Addison's disease; AS, ankylosing spondylitis; AITD, autoimmune thyroid disease; CD, celiac disease; CrD, Crohn's disease; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; IIM, idiopathic inflammatory myositis; JDM, juvenile dermatomyositis; JRA, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; JSLE, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus; MAS, multiple autoimmune syndrome; MG, myasthenia gravis; MS, multiple sclerosis; PA, pernicious anemia; PAN, polyarteritis nodosa; PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis; PSO, psoriasis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SS, Sjögren's syndrome; SSc, systemic sclerosis; T1D, type 1 diabetes; UC, ulcerative colitis; VIT, vitiligo; WG, Wegener's granulomatosis. Note: Although AS is considered an auto-inflammatory more than autoimmune disease [76] we show the results obtained.