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Table 2 Characteristics of the studies included.

From: How do autoimmune diseases cluster in families? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Disease in probands Author and year Country Study type Total number of probands Affected FDRs in probands Total number FDRs Total controls Affected FDRs in controls Total FDRs in controls Oxford 2011 level of evidence Observations
AITD            
  Boelaert 2010 [33] UK Cross sectional 3286 845 6572     3  
  Hemminki 2009 [34] Sweden Cohort 15,743 1,135 2,412     3  
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 43 21 232     3  
T1D            
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 10 6 232     3  
  Bottazzo 1978 [36] UK Cross sectional 116 4 257     3  
  Anaya 2006 [37] Colombia C&C 98 18 312 113 9 362 3  
  Wagner 2011 [38] Spain Cross sectional 12,973 97 1,279     3 Non diabetic siblings
     12,973 1,001 6,262      Diabetic siblings
  Hemminki 2009 [39] Sweden Cohort 21,168 1,913 5,195     3  
  Samuelsson 2004 [40] Lithuania/Sweden C&C 803 114   1,944 229   3 N = for controls and for FDRs is not specified
  Lebenthal 2011a [41] Israel Cross sectional 121 57      3 Familial T1D patients
     226 43       Sporadic T1D patients.
            Numbers of FDRs are not given
SLE            
  Alarcón Segovia 2005 [42] Latin america Cross sectional 1,177 50      3 Total number of FDRs is not specified
  Priori 2003 [43] Italy C&C 154 39 759 140 12 776 3  
  Corporaal 2002 [44] The Netherlands Cross sectional 135 42 693     3  
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 65 47 232     3  
RA            
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 46 31 232     3  
  Lin 1998 [45] USA C&C 29 25 218 14 4 98 3  
  Thomas 1983 [46] UK C&C 295 19 2,081 307 8 2,299 3  
  Hemminki 2009 [47] Sweden Cohort 47,361 1,919 4,677     3  
  Jawaheer 2004 [48] USA C&C 1,097 10    83   3 N = for controls and for total FDRs are not specified
MS            
  Barcellos 2006 [32] USA Cross sectional 176 119 1,107     3  
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 82 64 232     3  
  Broadley 2000 [49] UK C&C 571 879 3,949 375 879 3949 3 Individual numbers of FDRs of cases and controls are not given
  Deretzi 2010 [50] Greece C&C 891 410 3,112 355 96 1580 3  
  Heinzlef 2000 [51] France Cross sectional 357 33 1,971     4  
  Henderson 2000 [52] Australia C&C 157 53 722 222 1582 1138 3  
  Marrosu 2002 [53] Italy Cohort 1,090 53 5,480     3  
  Ramagopalan 2007 [54] Canada Cross sectional 5,031 786 30,259     3  
  Nielsen 2008 [55] Denmark Cohort 8,205 260 20,800     3  
  Laroni 2005 [56] Italy C&C 245 21 984 245 13 1,002 4  
SSc            
  Arora Singh 2010 [57] USA   1,071 184 4,612     3  
  Hudson 2008 [58] Canada Cross sectional 719 260 715     3  
  Koumakis 2012 [59] France C&C 373 245 823 250 70 318 3  
  Frech 2010 [60] USA Nested C&C 1,037 95 4,629 10,370 417 49,312 3 Total number of FDRs, from controls, is not specified but ten controls were selected per proband
SS            
  Reveille 1984 [61] USA Cross sectional 98       3 Total number of FDRs and affected FDRs are not specified
  Anaya 2006 [62] Colombia C&C 101 56 876 124 33 857 3  
UC            
  Hemminki 2010 [63] Sweden Cohort 25,846 2,528 5,121     3  
CrD            
  Hemminki 2010 [63] Sweden Cohort 18,885 2,169 4,306     3  
IBD            
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 7 8 232     3  
VIT            
  Alkhateeb 2003 [64] USA/UK Cross sectional 2,624 660 8,034     3  
  Laberge 2005 [65] USA Cross sectional 133 98 331     3  
  Zhang 2009 [66] China Cross sectional 5,601 340 18,705     3  
JRA            
  Prahalad 2002 [67] USA C&C 110 72 446 45 29 181 3  
  Huang 2004 [68] Taiwan Cross sectional 110 5      3 Total number of FDRs is not specified
JSLE            
  Huang 2004 [68] Taiwan Cross sectional 91 6      3 Total number of FDRs is not specified
  Walters 2012 [69] USA Cross sectional 69 23      3 Total number of FDRs is not specified
IIM            
  Ginn 1998 [70] USA C&C 21 33 151 21 7 143 3  
  Niewold 2011 [71] USA Cross sectional 304 30 1,224     3  
CD            
  Petaros 2002 [72] Italy C&C 125 18 373 125 4 352 3  
  Cataldo 2003 [73] Italy C&C 66 11 225 68 2 232 3  
  Neuhausen 2008 [74] USA Cross sectional 408 58 1,272     3  
AA            
  Kakouroru 2007 [75] Greece C&C 157    100    3 Total number of FDRs and affected FDRs are not specified
PSO            
  Criswell 2005 [35] USA Cross sectional 8 8 232     3  
  1. aNumbers depicted represent families and not family members. Note: Only classical ADs are taken into account. Although some studies did not report the number of FDRs they specified other measures of association. See text for more details. AA, alopecia areata; AITD, autoimmune thyroid disease; C&C, case control; CD, celiac disease; CrD, Crohn's disease; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; IIM, idiopathic inflammatory myositis; JRA, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; JSLE, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus; MS, multiple sclerosis; PSO, psoriasis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SS, Sjögren's syndrome; SSc, systemic sclerosis; T1D, type 1 diabetes; UC, ulcerative colitis; VIT, vitiligo.