Mechanisms for VILI and potential targets for physiologic and non-physiologic interventions to minimize VILI. Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright (C) 2013 American Thoracic Society. Slutsky AS, Tremblay LN: Multiple system organ failure: is mechanical ventilation a contributing factor? Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1998, 157:1721–1725. ECLS, extracorporeal life support; LT, leukotrienes; MΦ, macrophages; NAVA, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist; PG, prostaglandins; ROS, reactive oxygen species; VILI, ventilator-induced lung injury.