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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population with respect to pregnancy outcomes

From: Urinary metabolic profiles in early pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and fetal growth restriction in the Rhea mother–child cohort study

    SPB (n = 88) IPB (n = 26) FGR (n = 36) SGA (n = 19) Control (n = 275)
Categorical variables Maternal education Low 31 (35.6%)*** 6 (23.1%) 10 (27.8%)* 4 (21.1%) 37 (13.5%)
   Medium 37 (42.5%) 11 (42.3%) 10 (27.8%) 7 (36.8%) 139 (50.5%)
   High 19 (21.8%) 9 (34.6%) 16 (44.4%) 8 (42.1%) 99 (36.0%)
  Greek origin   82 (93.2%) 26 (100.0%) 35 (97.2%) 19 (100.0%) 258 (94.2%)
  Multiparity   58 (65.9%) 19 (73.1%) 20 (55.6%) 12 (63.2%) 187 (68.0%)
  Smoking during pregnancy   19 (22.9%) 6 (24.0%) 10 (27.8%) 8 (42.1%)* 55 (20.4%)
  Pre-pregnancy BMI Underweight 6 (7.2%)*** 1 (4.0%) 1 (2.8%)* 1 (5.3%) 6 (2.2%)
   Normal 49 (59.0%) 10 (40.0%) 27 (75.0%) 15 (78.9%) 181 (66.8%)
   Overweight 16 (19.3%) 8 (32.0%) 4 (11.1%) 2 (10.5%) 54 (19.9%)
   Obese 12 (14.5%) 6 (24.0%) 4 (11.1%) 1 (5.3%) 30 (11.1%)
  FGR   3 (4.0%) 3 (14.3%) 36 (100.0%)*** 17 (94.4%)*** 0 (0.0%)
Continuous variables Maternal age, years   29.0 (26.0 to 33.0) 31.0 (27.2 to 36.0) 30.0 (27.0 to 33.2) 30.0 (28.0 to 33.0) 31.0 (27.0 to 34.5)
  Gestational age, weeks   35.5 (35.0 to 36.0)*** 36.0 (35.5 to 36.0)*** 39.0 (37.5 to 40.0) 38.0 (38.0 to 40.0) 39.0 (38.0 to 39.0)
  Birth weight, g   2715 (2430 to 2980)*** 2800 (2570 to 2890)*** 2610 (2482 to 2802)*** 2550 (2182 to 2615)*** 3250 (3010 to 3550)
  Cholesterol (n = 227)   215.0 (189.5 to 237.0) 222.0 (212.8 to 233.0)* 205.0 (163.0 to 225.0) 225.0 (198.0 to 234.0) 202.0 (178.5 to 231.0)
  Triglycerides (n = 227)   112.0 (86.5 to 134.5) 149.0 (104.0 to 159.2) 99.0 (89.0 to 119.0) 95.0 (89.0 to 131.0) 111.0 (85.5 to 138.0)
  Insulin (n = 369)   6.3 (2.3 to 14.8) 10.6 (5.0 to 17.5)* 8.3 (3.2 to 26.6) 5.1 (2.7 to 37.9) 5.5 (2.0 to 15.9)
  LDL-C (n = 227)   128.0 (101.5 to 138.5) 130.0 (121.2 to 135.8) 116.0 (90.0 to 142.0) 142.0 (112.0 to 149.0) 114.0 (98.5 to 142.0)
  HDL-C (n = 227)   61.0 (52.0 to 71.0) 70.5 (59.8 to 79.2) 59.0 (49.0 to 69.0) 63.0 (49.0 to 67.0) 60.0 (49.0 to 68.5)
  Systolic BP (n = 338)   107.7 (101.0 to 115.7) 110.7 (105.7 to 117.3) 105.0 (96.0 to 112.1) 99.7 (94.2 to 110.2) 106.3 (100.3 to 112.0)
  Diastolic BP (n = 338)   69.7 (64.3 to 76.0) 74.5 (69.6 to 79.3) 69.3 (61.3 to 77.0) 65.2 (58.2 to 77.3) 69.7 (63.7 to 76.0)
  1. Values are presented as medians (interquartile range) for continuous variables or frequencies, n (%) for categorical variables.
  2. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 where P values were calculated using the χ2 test (categorical variables) or Mann–Whitney test (continuous) between cases and controls.
  3. Gestational age and type of PB were known for 438 women, whereas FGR data were available for 401 women. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FGR, fetal growth restriction; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; IPB, induced preterm birth; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.