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Table 2 Urinary metabolites with significant median differences between birth outcome cases and controls

From: Urinary metabolic profiles in early pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and fetal growth restriction in the Rhea mother–child cohort study

  Selected resonance (δ), ppm All PB types (n = 114) SPB (n = 88) IPB (n = 26) FGR (n = 36) SGA (n = 19)
  Pvalue q value % diff Pvalue q value % diff Pvalue q value % diff Pvalue q value % diff Pvalue q value % diff
Tyrosinea 6.87 (d), 7.18 (d) 0.055 0.264 −15% 0.161 0.410 −12% 0.083 0.530 −20% 0.008 0.024 −24% 0.094 0.220 −25%
Steroid conjugate – 0.63 (s) 0.63 (s) 0.039 0.252 17% 0.045 0.218 19% 0.391 0.808 11% 0.129 0.096 15% 0.392 0.486 8%
Leucine 0.96 (t) 0.364 0.578 2% 0.227 0.463 2% 0.778 0.893 −2% 0.443 0.226 1% 0.026 0.093 11%
Lactate 1.33 (d) 0.342 0.562 −5% 0.259 0.482 −5% 0.988 0.914 −4% 0.025 0.051 −19% 0.009 0.081 −19%
Alanine 1.48 (d) 0.627 0.702 −1% 0.426 0.602 −2% 0.653 0.875 3% 0.031 0.055 −10% 0.027 0.094 −9%
Lysine 1.73 (m) 0.056 0.264 1% 0.016 0.214 2% 0.762 0.891 −2% 0.349 0.197 −4% 0.512 0.553 0%
Acetate 1.92 (s) 0.423 0.613 −2% 0.885 0.758 0% 0.106 0.564 −7% 0.003 0.018 −9% 0.017 0.081 −11%
N-acetyl glycoprotein fragments 2.04 (s) 0.390 0.594 3% 0.783 0.735 0% 0.009 0.231 9% 0.358 0.200 −4% 0.913 0.688 −1%
N-acetyl neuraminic acid 2.06 (s) 0.806 0.752 0% 0.701 0.713 0% 0.173 0.650 7% 0.525 0.248 1% 0.015 0.081 10%
Citrate 2.55 (d) 0.818 0.754 −2% 0.882 0.757 −1% 0.395 0.809 −5% 0.045 0.067 −9% 0.119 0.250 −9%
Trimethylamine 2.87 (s) 0.094 0.277 −2% 0.218 0.457 −1% 0.133 0.593 −7% 0.002 0.018 −18% 0.013 0.081 −17%
Trimethylamine-N-oxide 3.27 (s) 0.067 0.270 −3% 0.032 0.217 −3% 0.976 0.913 6% 0.184 0.126 −7% 0.084 0.206 −9%
Glycine 3.57 (d) 0.103 0.279 −5% 0.049 0.218 −10% 0.920 0.908 8% 0.019 0.044 −14% 0.008 0.081 −17%
Phenylacetylglutamine 7.37 (d) 0.071 0.271 −9% 0.356 0.558 −3% 0.015 0.231 −21% 0.871 0.339 −1% 0.428 0.508 −12%
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide 8.33 (s) 0.065 0.269 8% 0.049 0.218 8% 0.676 0.879 −3% 0.764 0.311 −7% 0.545 0.568 −10%
Formate 8.46 (s) 0.004 0.105 −11% 0.009 0.214 −12% 0.115 0.574 −8% 0.007 0.024 −16% 0.410 0.498 −2%
  1. % diff – percentage difference in group median.
  2. Metabolite differences with P < 0.05 (Mann–Whitney test) are in bold type.
  3. q Values indicate false discovery rate (likelihood of a false positive finding).
  4. aMetabolite levels were determined by peak integration except for tyrosine, for which the Chenomx NMR suite was used.
  5. FGR, fetal growth restriction; IPB, induced preterm birth; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.
  6. Letters in brackets in the selected resonance column represent the signal multiplicity with (s) for singlets, (d) for doublets, (m) for multiplet and (t) for triplets.