Skip to main content

Table 3 Dose–response relationships between levels of selected metabolites and frequency of birth outcomes

From: Urinary metabolic profiles in early pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and fetal growth restriction in the Rhea mother–child cohort study

Outcome Metabolite Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Pvalue for trend
All PB types (n = 114) Steroid conjugate: 0.63 (s) 21% 22% 25% 32% 0.01*
  Formate 32% 25% 23% 20% 0.02*
SPB (n = 88) Steroid conjugate: 0.63 (s) 20% 22% 24% 34% 0.01*
  Lysine 14% 30% 26% 31% 0.03*
  Trimethylamine-N-oxide 26% 28% 28% 17% 0.10
  Glycine 26% 34% 20% 19% 0.07
  N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide 19% 19% 30% 32% 0.03*
  Formate 32% 25% 24% 19% 0.02
IPB (n = 26) N-acetyl glycoprotein fragments 8% 23% 19% 50% 0.01**
  Phenylacetylglutamine 42% 27% 12% 19% 0.03*
FGR (n = 36) Tyrosine 33% 36% 17% 14% 0.03*
  Lactate 33% 33% 17% 17% 0.05*
  Alanine 39% 31% 11% 19% 0.03*
  Acetate 39% 31% 22% 8% 0.004**
  Citrate 33% 39% 14% 14% 0.02*
  Trimethylamine 50% 19% 17% 14% 0.002**
  Glycine 33% 39% 11% 17% 0.03*
  Formate 39% 28% 19% 14% 0.02*
SGA (n = 19) Leucine 16% 16% 26% 42% 0.06
  Lactate 37% 37% 16% 11% 0.05*
  Alanine 42% 32% 16% 11% 0.03*
  Acetate 42% 21% 32% 5% 0.05*
  N-acetyl neuraminic acid 21% 11% 16% 53% 0.04*
  Trimethylamine 47% 16% 21% 16% 0.07
  Glycine 42% 37% 11% 11% 0.02*
  1. Percentage of each birth outcome frequency across pregnant women stratified by metabolite levels (into quartiles: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4).
  2. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 for a significant trend in outcome (Cochrane-Armitage trend test, highlighted in bold).
  3. FGR, fetal growth restriction; IPB, induced preterm birth; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.